The growth and development witnessed today in modern science, engineering, and technology owes a heavy debt to the rare, refractory, and reactive metals group, of which niobium is a member. Extractive Metallurgy of Niobium presents a vivid account of the metal through its comprehensive discussions of properties and applications, resources and resource processing, chemical processing and compound preparation, metal extraction, and refining and consolidation. Typical flow sheets adopted in some leading niobium-producing countries for the beneficiation of various niobium sources are presented, and various chemical processes for producing pure forms of niobium intermediates such as chloride, fluoride, and oxide are discussed. The book also explains how to liberate the metal from its intermediates and describes the physico-chemical principles involved. It is an excellent reference for chemical metallurgists, hydrometallurgists, extraction and process metallurgists, and minerals processors. It is also valuable to a wide variety of scientists, engineers, technologists, and students interested in the topic.
Table of Contents
Properties and Applications of Niobium: Introduction. Historical: Discovery, Early Developments, Recent Trends. Properties: Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Metallurgical Properties. Applications: Niobium in Steels, Cast Irons, Niobium in Superalloys, Niobium in Zirconium Alloys, Niobium in Superconducting Alloys, Niobium in Chemical Process Industry, Niobium Compounds, Miscellaneous. Summary. Sources and Their Treatment Procedures: Introduction. Crustal Abundance. Minerals: General, Geochemistry, Niobium Mineralization. Sources and Reserves: General, Types of Sources, Reserves, Major Deposits. Ore Extraction: General, Mining, Comminution, Concentration. Major Production Practices: Pyrochlore, Niobium with Other Minerals. Summary. Chemical Processing: Introduction. Primary and Secondary Sources: General, Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Source Opening, Niobium and Tantalum Separation Processes, Primary Sources Processing, Secondary Sources Processing. Pollution Aspects in Chemical Processing. Compounds: General, Oxides, Chlorides and Fluorides, Carbides, Hydrides, Nitrides, Borides, Silicides. Summary. Reduction Processes: Introduction. Oxide Reduction Processes: General, Metallothermics, Carbothermics. Chloride Reduction Processes: General, Active Metal Reduction, Non Metal Reduction, Disproportionation and Decomposition. Fluoride Reduction Processes: General, Sodiothermic Process. Electrolytic Reduction Processes. Nitride Decomposition Process: General, Process Description. Miscellaneous Processes: Ferroniobium, Niobium Alloys, Niobium Carbide. Summary. Purification and Consolidation: Introduction: General, Impurities in Niobium. Purification Techniques: Classification of Purification Techniques, Pyrovacuum Treatment, Electrorefining, Iodide Refining, Zone Refining, Electrotransport, Chemical Gettering. Consolidation: Vacuum Sintering, Vacuum Arc Melting, Electron Beam Melting. Summary. Autobiography: Introduction. Chemistry. Mineralogy and Geology. Occurrences. Front End Processes. Back End Processes. Uses and Markets. Conclusion.