Biothermodynamics

Biothermodynamics: The Role of Thermodynamics in Biochemical Engineering

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Summary

This book covers the fundamentals of the rapidly growing field of biothermodynamics, showing how thermodynamics can best be applied to applications and processes in biochemical engineering. It describes the rigorous application of thermodynamics in biochemical engineering to rationalize bioprocess development and obviate a substantial fraction of this need for tedious experimental work. As such, this book will appeal to a diverse group of readers, ranging from students and professors in biochemical engineering, to scientists and engineers, for whom it will be a valuable reference.

Table of Contents

Fundamentals
THE ROLE OF THERMODYNAM ICS IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Basic remarks on thermodynamics in biochemical engineering
Fundamental concepts in equilibrium thermodynamics
Charged species, gels and other soft systems
Stability and activity of biomacromolecules
Thermodynamics of live cells
Thermodynamic analysis of metabolism
Conclusions
References
PHASE EQUILIBRIUM IN NON-ELECTROLYTE SYSTEMS
Introduction
Essential formal relations
1 Criteria for equilibrium
Liquid-liquid equilibria
Solid-liquid equilibria
References
Virial Expansion for Chemical Potentials in a Dilute Solution for Calculation of Liquid-Liquid Equilibria
Introduction
Example of protein separation
References
The thermodynamics of electrically charged molecules in solution
Why do electrically charged molecules call for a particular thermodynamic treatment?
The thermodynamics of electrolytes
Electrostatics
Empirical and advanced ion activity coefficient models
References
WATER
Introduction
Phenomenological aspects of water
M olecular properties of water
Water as a solvent
Further reading

Charged Species, Gels, and other Soft Systems
POLYMERS, POLYELECTROL YTES AND GELS
Flory’s Theory of polymer solutions
Electric Charge on a weak polyelectrolyte
Hydrogels: Elementary Equations for Idealized Networks and Their Swelling Behavior
Appendix: Entropy of mixing for polymer solutions
References
SELF-ASSEMBLY OF AMPHIPHILIC MOLECULES
Introduction
Self-assembly as phase separation
Different types of self-assembled structures
Aggregation as a "start-stop" process: size and shape of self-assembled structures
Mass action model for micellization
Factors that influence the critical micelle concentration
Bilayer structures
Reverse micelles
Microemulsions
Self-assembled structures in applications
References
MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS OF PARTITIONING IN AQUEOUS TWO-PHASE SYSTEMS
Introduction
Flory–Huggins theory applied to aqueous two-phase partition systems
Dependence of partitioning on system variables
Simple interpretation of the effects of added electrolyte
Calculation of phase diagrams and partitioning
Conclusions
References
GENERALIZATION OF THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES FOR SELECTION OF BIOSEPARATION PROCESSES
Phase behavior in Bioseparation Processes
Generalized correlation
Generalized polarity scales
Conclusions
APPENDIX
References
Protein Precipitation with Salts and/or Polymers
Introduction
Equation of state
The potential of mean force
Precipitation calculations
Generalization to a multicomponent solution.
Crystallization
References
MULTICOMPONENT ION EXCHANGE EQUILIBRIA OF WEAK ELECTROLYTE BIOMOLECULES
Introduction
Multi-component ion exchange of weak electrolytes
Experimental case studies
Conclusions
References

Stability and Activity of Biomacromolecules
PROTEINS
Introduction
The amino acids in proteins
The three-dimensional structure of protein molecules in aqueous solution
Non-covalent interactions that determine the structure of a protein molecule in water
Stability of protein structure in aqueous solution
Thermodynamic analysis of protein structure stability
Reversibility of protein denaturation aggregation of unfolded protein molecules
References
THERMODYNAMICS IN MULTIPHASE BIOCATALYSIS
Why multiphase biocatalysis?
Thermodynamics of enzymatic reactions in aqueous systems
Non-aqueous media for biocatalysis.
Using enyzmes in organic solvents
Phase equilibria in multiphase enyzmatic reactions
Whole cells in organic solvents
List of symbols
References
Thermodynamics of the Physical Stability of Protein Solutions
Introduction
Factors influencing protein stability
Mechanism of protein aggregation
Summary and conclusions
References
Measuring, Interpreting and Modeling the Stabilities and Melting Temperatures of B-Form DNA s that Exhibit a Two-State Helix-to-Coil Transition
Introduction
Methods for measuring duplex DNA melting thermodynamics
Modeling dsDNA stability and the melting transition
Comparing and further improving the performance of NNT models
Final thoughts
References

Thermodynamics in Living Systems
LIVE CELLS AS OPEN NON-EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS
Introduction
Balances for open systems
Entropy production, forces and fluxes
Flux-force relationships and coupled processes
The linear energy converter as a model for living systems
Conclusions
References
Miniaturization of Calorimetry: Strengths and Weaknesses for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control
Why miniaturization of calorimeters?
Historical roots
Measurement principle
Calorimetry versus off-gas analysis
Applications of chip-calorimetry
Outlook
References
A thermodynamic approach to predict Black Box model parameters for microbial growth
Introduction
Catabolic energy production
Thermodynamic prediction of the parameters in the Herbert-Pirt substrate distribution relation
Prediction of the qp() relationship
Prediction of the process reaction
Prediction of the hyperbolic substrate uptake kinetic parameters
Influence of temperature and pH on Black Box model parameters
Heat production in biological systems
Conclusion
References
Further reading
BIOTHERMODYNAMICS OF LIVE CELLS:Energy dissipation and heat generation in cellular cultures
Why study heat generation and energy dissipation in biotechnology?
The first law: measuring, interpreting and exploiting heat generation in live cultures
The second law: energy dissipation, driving force and growth
Predicting energy and heat dissipation by calculation
Results: heat generation and Gibbs energy dissipation as a function of biomass yield
Application: prediction of yield coefficients
Discussion and conclusions
Appendix: Example calculation for prediction of growth stoichiometry
References
THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Introduction
References

Thermodynamics of Metabolism
A THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF DICARBOXYLIC ACID PRODUCTION IN MICROORGANISMS
Introduction
Outline of the approach
Thermodynamics of dicarboxylic acid transport
Genetic engineering of target systems based upon thermodynamic analysis results
Conclusion.
Appendices
References
THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS
Introduction
Thermodynamic feasibility analysis of individual metabolic pathways
Estimation of observable standard Gibbs energies of reaction
Materials and methods [22]
Results and discussion
Conclusions
References
Index.

 
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