Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution: Aging and Life Extension Techniques

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Features

  • Analyzes the factors that cause and accelerate the aging of electrical equipment
  • Introduces multiple techniques and procedures to help reduce the impact of deterioration and aging and extend equipment life
  • Explains how to recognize the signs of equipment aging
  • Contains numerous case studies from around the world
  • Includes more than 85 black-and-white illustrations, plus a 16-page color insert

Summary

Electrical distribution and transmission systems are complex combinations of various conductive and insulating materials. When exposed to atmospheric corrosive gases, contaminants, extreme temperatures, vibrations, and other internal and external impacts, these systems deteriorate, and sooner or later their ability to function properly is destroyed. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution: Aging and Life Extension Techniques offers practical guidance on ways to slow down the aging of these electrical systems, improve their performance, and extend their life.

Recognize the Signs of Aging in Equipment—and Learn How to Slow It

A reference manual for engineering, maintenance, and training personnel, this book analyzes the factors that cause materials to deteriorate and explains what you can do to reduce the impact of these factors. In one volume, it brings together extensive information previously scattered among manufacturers’ documentation, journal papers, conference proceedings, and general books on plating, lubrication, insulation, and other areas.

  • Shows you how to identify the signs of equipment aging
  • Helps you understand the causes of equipment deterioration
  • Suggests practical techniques for protecting electrical apparatus from deterioration and damage
  • Supplies information that can be used to develop manuals on proper maintenance procedures and choice of materials
  • Provides numerous examples from industry

This book combines research and engineering material with maintenance recommendations given in layperson’s terms, making it useful for readers from a range of backgrounds. In particular, it is a valuable resource for personnel responsible for the utilization, operation, and maintenance of electrical transmission and distribution equipment at power plants and industrial facilities.

Table of Contents

Plating of Electrical Equipment
Electroplating for Contact Applications
Electroless Plating
Electroless Nickel as a Plating Alternative for Electrical Apparatus in Corrosive Atmosphere
Zinc Electroplating and Galvanization
Metal Whiskers on Plating (Noncorrosive Phenomenon)
Plating on Aluminum
Plating Standards and Glossary
Plating Glossary
References

Detrimental Processes and Aging of Plating
Issues of Tin Plating Performance
Use of Underplating for Plating Longevity
Applications of Ni Underplating
Galvanic Corrosion: Connections Made of Dissimilar Metals
Other Detrimental Processes Affecting Plating Performance
References

Electrical Equipment in a Corrosive Environment
Corrosion Factors in the Atmosphere
Effect of Environment on Bare Metals
Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver Plating
Effect of Silver Corrosion on Contact Resistance
Silver Whiskers: A Mysterious and Dangerous Phenomenon
Tin Plating Corrosion
Zinc Plating Corrosion and Galvanized Steel
Means of Corrosion Protection of Electrical Equipment
Means of Environmental Control for Corrosion Protection
Corrosion Glossary
References

Lubrication of Distribution Electrical Equipment
Lubrication Primer
Incompatibility of Lubricants
Lubricant Working Temperature Limits and Storage
Lubrication of Electrical Contacts
Practical Lubrication
Lubrication Failure Modes
Lubrication Failures of Electrical Equipment: Case Studies
Informational Sources for Lubricants
Lubrication Glossary
References

Insulation, Coatings, and Adhesives in Transmission and Distribution Electrical Equipment
Insulating Materials in Power Equipment
Aging of Insulating Materials Due to Electrical Stress
Environmental Aging of Insulating Materials
HV Bushings in Transformers and CBs
Power Cable Insulation
Other Insulating Media
Powder Coating and Paint for Electrical Enclosures
Electrical Insulation Standards and Glossary
References

Electrical Equipment Life Expectancy, Aging, and Failures
Life Expectancy for Distribution and Transmission Equipment
Signatures of the Aging of Electrical Equipment in Nuclear, Industrial, and Residential Environments
Failure Modes and Failure Rates of Aging Electrical Equipment
Failure Causes and Rates of Electrical Equipment Based on CIGRÉ Survey
Failure Cases of High-Voltage Electrical Equipment
Failure Cases of Low- and Medium-Voltage Electrical Equipment
References

Physical Conditions of Electrical Equipment: Testing, Monitoring, and Diagnostics
Parameters Defining the Physical Conditions of Electrical Equipment
Techniques for Testing Physical Conditions of MV Cables
Testing Techniques to Assess Insulation Conditions of HV/MV Switchgear, CB, and Transformers
Online Monitoring Techniques for PD of MV Substation, Switchgear, and Cables
Testing of HV Bushing Conditions
Thermal Conditions of Electrical Equipment and Temperature Monitoring
Physical Conditions of Transmission Electrical Equipment: Online Monitoring Techniques
References

Electrical Equipment Maintenance and Life Extension Techniques
Maintenance Strategies
Maintenance as a Life Extension Technique
CBM Methodology and Life Management
Maintenance of Electrical Equipment Exposed to Corrosion and Water
References

Index

Author Bio(s)

Bella Helmer Chudnovsky earned her Ph.D. in applied physics at Rostov State University (RSU) in Russia. For the first 25 years, she worked as a scientist at the Institute of Physics at RSU and at the University of Cincinnati. During the last 12 years of her career, she worked as an R&D engineer for Schneider Electric-Square D Company, where her principal areas of activities were aimed at resolving multiple aging problems of power distribution equipment. She has published 40 papers in national and international technical journals and conference proceedings.

Editorial Reviews

"The focus of this unique reference book is four critical areas in the manufacturing of power distribution components. These areas are plating, lubrication, insulator failure, and maintenance. ... The many SEM images, x-ray studies, photos, and tabular data make for a very convenient reference source for diagnosing plating problems. ... Examples often help to drive home a point, and many case studies illustrating the various failure modes described throughout the book are included. These could prove to be an invaluable source of information when trying to diagnose unknown field failures. ... Engineers involved with failure analysis or lifetime reliability predictions of power-distribution components will find this book a very useful and practical source of information, especially regarding plating failures. Extensive information on critical plating materials and processes used in the industry, which directly affect the reliability and lifetime of power-distribution components, is presented. The book could prompt ideas for failure investigations involving plating or lubrication, and it offers suggestions for improving the reliability and increasing the lifetime of power-distribution components."
—John J. Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2013, Vol. 29, No. 3