Green Communications: Theoretical Fundamentals, Algorithms and Applications

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Features

  • Covers all major aspects of green communications
  • Provides balanced coverage of theory and practical issues
  • Introduces fundamental principles
  • Considers both green wired and wireless communications

Summary

Nowadays energy crisis and global warming problems are hanging over everyone’s head, urging much research work on energy saving. In the ICT industry, which is becoming a major consumer of global energy triggered by the telecommunication network operators experiencing energy cost as a significant factor in profit calculations, researchers have started to investigate various approaches for power consumption reduction.

Standards bodies are already developing standards for energy-efficient protocols. However, research in green communications is still at an early stage, and the space of potential solutions is far from being fully explored. This book provides a comprehensive discussion of academic research and relevant applications in green communications. It aims to increase understanding of relevant issues and further the development of strategies and techniques.

Gathering efforts from world-leading experts on green topics with different focuses, such as mobile communications, wireless networks, ad hoc and sensor networks, cloud computing, optical networking, smart grids, network devices, even FPGA and terminal devices, combined with the best practices from the largest telecommunication operator, China Mobile Corporation, this book covers key features such as:

  • Not only focuses on energy saving of ICT industry, but also figures out its role to help other industries reduce energy consumption
  • Comprehensively covers almost all main aspects in green communications
  • Includes recent advances in theoretical analysis, algorithms, and practical applications for green wired and wireless communications
  • Readers do not have to be professionals in communications to understand the basic ideas in the book

This book brings green wired and wireless communications, as well as other general green topics, in one book, which will give readers a panoramic view in the relevant green fields.

Table of Contents

Runtime-Controlled Energy Reduction Techniques for FPGAs; Assem A. M. Bsoul, Stuart Dueck, and Steven J. E. Wilton
Introduction
Island-Style Field-Programmable Gate Arrays
     Architecture
     CAD Flow for FPGAs
Power Dissipation in VLSI 
     Dynamic Power 
     Static
Energy Reduction Techniques for FPGAs
     Clock Gating 
     Controlled Body Biasing 
     Dynamic Reconfiguration
     Multiple Supply Voltages
     CAD Techniques 
     Other Techniques
Runtime-Controlled Power-Gated FPGAs 
     Architecture Description
     Evaluation 
          Architecture Evaluation
          Example Application
Conclusion

Smart Grid and ICT's Role in Its Evolution; Hassan Farhangi
Climate Change
Conventional Electricity Grid
Overview of Smart Grid
Smart Grid Applications
Command and Control Strategies
Smart Grid Building Blocks
Smart Grid Network Topologies
Smart Grid Communication Systems
Smart Grid ICT Future Developments 
Suggested Readings

Energy Saving Solutions and Practices of China Mobile
; Sen Bian, Huabin Tang, Xidong Wang, Jinsong Wu, and Zhihong Zhang, Chih-Lin I, and Bill Huang
Introduction 
     Energy Consumption Status and Objective of CMCC
     Views on Energy Saving of Wireless Communication Devices and Systems from CMCC
Energy Saving Solutions for Wireless Networks 
     The High-Energy-Efficient Hardware Platform 
          RRUs in Distributed Base Stations 
          Distributed RRU Networking 
          Multi-Carrier Distributed Base Station 
          Energy Saving Advantages 
     Software Power-Saving Features 
          Intelligent Power-Saving Technology
     GSM Intelligent Power-Saving System Based on Base Station Sector Switching 
          System Overview 
          Typical Power-Saving Proposals 
     Highly Energy-Efficient RAN Network Architecture
Energy Saving Proposals for Core Networks and Data Centers
     Energy Saving of Data Center Facilities 
          Data Center Energy Efficiency Assessment and Optimization 
          The Analysis of the Main Factors Affecting Energy Efficiency 
          Technologies and Measures for Optimizing Energy Efficiency 
          The Construction of the New Generation of Green Data Center 
     Energy Saving of IT Equipment 
          Improve Equipment Efficiency Requirements 
          Applications of Server Virtualization 
          Power Management for Cloud Computing
Energy-Saving Solutions for Accessory Equipments 
     Energy-Saving Solutions for the Refrigeration System 
          Smart Ventilation System 
          Heat-Pipe Heat-Exchanger Unit 
     The Energy Saving Solutions for Backup Power Systems
          Lithium Iron-Phosphate Battery 
          The Thermostat for Rechargeable Battery 
     Energy Saving Solutions Using Renewable Energy 
          Solar Energy Utilization for Base Stations
          Base Stations Powered by Wind Energy Technologies

Standard Methodologies for Energy Efficiency Assessment; Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, and Chiara Lombardo
Introduction
An Overview on Novel Green Network Technologies 
     Internet Evolution and Concern over Energy Wastes 
     Current Approaches and Concepts for Low-Energy Networking
Benchmarking Methodologies 
     ECR 3.0.1 
     ATIS 060015.03.2009 
     RFC 2544 
     Other Upcoming Propositions
Comparison among the Standards
Performance Evaluation 
     Extending Current Evaluation Methodologies 
     Test Results
Conclusions

Reciprocal Learning for Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks; Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, Honggang Zhang, Jinsong Wu, and Tao Chen
Introduction
Network Model and Problem Formulation
Distributed Learning Algorithms with Dynamic Conjectures 
     A Best Response Learning Method for OSA
          The Best Response Strategies 
          Global Convergence of the Dynamic Network 
     OSA by Gradient Ascent Algorithms
Numerical Results
Conclusion

Green Communications for Carbon Emission Reductions: Architectures and Standards; Charles Despins, Fabrice Labeau, Richard Labelle, Mohamed Cheriet, Alberto Leon-Garcia,
and Omar Cherkaoui
Introduction
Network Architectures and Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions
     Networks and Protocols 
     Integrated Optical-Wireless Access
     Data Centers
Testbeds 
     Greenstar 
     NetVirt 
     SAVI
Carbon Standards for Communications Technologies
     Power and Performance Measurement Challenges 
     Network and System Operation Challenges 
     The Need for Carbon Standards Adapted to Communications Technologies
     Standards Development in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Conclusion

The Role of ICT in the Evolution Towards Smart Grids; Raffaele Bolla, Flavio Cucchietti, and Matteo Repetto
Introduction
Legacy Energy Grids
The Concept of Smart Grid
Hot Topics for Smart Grids
     Load Management 
     Wide Area Situation Awareness 
     Distributed Generation 
     Microgrids 
     Energy Storage 
     AMI Systems 
     Electric Vehicles 
     Energy Gateways 
     Man-Machine Interfaces 
     Network Management 
     Grid Management
     Market Operations
Political and Standardization Initiatives 
     Policies and Directives 
          Europe
          North America 
          Asia 
     Research Projects in Europe 
     Standardization Efforts
Architectures for Smart Grids
     Conceptual Models of Smart Grids 
          Layout of the Communication System 
               Distributed Services and Applications 
               Data Models and Information Exchange 
               Networking
               Communication Media and Technologies 
     Network Architectures 
          Local Area Networks 
          Home Area Networks 
          Access Networks 
          Neighborhood Area Networks
          Wide Area Networks
Research Issues and Challenges for ICT

Moving a Processing Element from Hot to Cool Spots: Is This an Efficient Method to Decrease Leakage Power Consumption in FPGAs?; Amor Nafkha, Pierre Leray, Yves Louet, and Jacques Palicot
Introduction
Power Consumption Sources 
     Static Power 
     Short-Circuit Power 
     Dynamic Power 
     Dynamic Versus Static Power
Digital Thermal Sensor 
     Ring Oscillator vs. System Monitor 
     Ring Oscillator vs. FPGA VCCINT Voltage Supply
Experimental Setup 
     Processing Element Number 1: Random Number Generator
     Processing Element Number 2: MicroBlaze
Experiments and Results 
     Temperature vs. Leakage Current Consumption 
     FPGA Temperature Analysis
Conclusion

Cloud Computing - A Greener Future for IT; Jinzy Zhu and Xing Fang
Introduction
Why IT Needs to be Green
Cloud Computing, the Future of IT 
     What is Cloud Computing? 
     Cloud Computing Classification 
     Cloud Computing Characteristics 
     Why does Cloud Computing Make IT Green?
Cloud Foundation: Green Data Center 
     Green Measurement, PUE 
     Data Center Site Selection 
     Datacenter Construction 
     Power Conversion and UPS 
     Cooling
Cloud Building Block: Green Hardware 
     Energy Saving Chip 
     Energy Saving Hardware
Cloud Core: Intelligent Management Software 
     Virtualization 
     Automation 
     Autonomic Management
Outlook to a Green Cloud Future

Energy-Effcient Management of Campus PCs; Luca Chiaraviglio and Marco Mellia
Introduction 
Motivations 
     Reducing PCs Power Consumption: Why Now? 
     Impact of PCs Power in Campus Environments
Monitoring PC Usage 
     Methodology
     Results 
          Active Devices vs. Energy Consumption 
          Device Classification
          Energy Consumption of Networked Devices
     Characterization of Users' Habit
     Discussion
Reducing PC Energy Consumption 
     PoliSave Architecture 
          Client Architecture 
          Server Architecture 
          Communication Protocols 
          Discussion and Implementation Issues
Results 
     Testbed Description 
     Minimizing the Number of PCs On 
     Automatic vs. Manual Operations 
     Different Users' Profiles 
     Users' Characterization 
     Discussion
Related Work
Conclusion

FOCUS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

C-RAN: A Green RAN Framework; Kuilin (Clark) Chen, Chunfeng Cui, Yuhong Huang, and Bill Huang
Introduction
Challenges of Today's RAN 
     Explosive Network Data Traffic 
     Large Number of BS and High Power Consumption 
     Rapid Increasing CAPEX and OPEX 
     Dynamic Mobile Network Load 
     Growing Internet Service Pressure on the Core Network
Architecture of C-RAN 
     Overall Concept
          Different Technical Approaches
Advantages of C-RAN 
     Energy Efficient Perspective 
     RAN Cost Structure Optimization Perspective
     Enhanced Network Performance Perspective 
     Service on the Edge
Challenges of C-RAN 
     Efficient Transmission of Radio over Optical Transport Networks 
     Cooperative Transmission and Reception on C-RAN 
     Real-time Cloud and BS Virtualization 
     Performance and Power Challenge of SDR on General Purpose Processor
China Mobile's View on RAN Evolution Path 
     Trials on GSM/TD-SCDMA Network 
          Overall Situation 
          Field Trial Area 
          Overall Solution 
     Progress in C-RAN PoC system 
     Potential Evolution Path 
          C-RAN Centralized Base Station Deployment
          Multi-Standard SDR and Joint Signal Processing
          Virtual BS on Real-time Cloud Infrastructure
Conclusions

Green Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; Ting Zhu, Abedelaziz Mohaisen, Ping Yi, and Jianqing Ma
Introduction
Energy Harvesting Techniques 
Energy Conservation Techniques
Energy Synchronization Techniques 
     A Feedback-Based Energy Synchronization Control 
     An Energy Synchronized Communication Protocol

Green Wireless Communications under Quality of Service Constraints
; Deli Qiao, Mustafa Cenk Gursoy, and Senem Velipasalar
Introduction
Preliminaries - Effective Capacity and Energy Per Information Bit 
     Effective Capacity 
     Spectral Efficiency vs. Bit Energy
Variable-Rate/Variable-Power and Variable-Rate/Fixed-Power Transmissions 
     Channel Model 
     Energy Efficiency in the Low-Power Regime 
          CSI at the Receiver Only 
          CSI at Both the Transmitter and Receiver 
     Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime 
          CSI at the Receiver Only 
          CSI at Both the Transmitter and Receiver
Fixed-Rate/Fixed-Power Transmissions 
     Channel Model 
     Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime
     Energy Efficiency In The Low-Power Regime
Transmissions over Imperfectly-Known Wireless Channels 
     Training and Data Transmission Phases 
          Training Phase
          Data Transmission Phase and Capacity Lower Bound 
          Fixed-Rate Transmission and ON-OFF Model
          Optimal Training Power 
     Energy Efficiency in the Low-Power Regime 
     Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime 
          Decomposing the Wideband Channel into Narrowband Subchannels 
          Rich and Sparse Multipath Fading Scenarios
Conclusion

On the Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-off in Cellular Systems;
Fabien Heliot, Efstathios Katranaras, Oluwakayode Onireti, and Muhammad Ali Imran
Introduction
Background Literature 
     Spectral Efficiency 
     Energy Efficiency 
     Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-Off 
     Explicit Formulation vs. Approximation 
          Low-Power Approximation Approach 
          EE-SE Closed-Form Approximation 
     Idealistic vs. Realistic Power Consumption Model 
               Limitations on the Idealistic Power Model 
               Realistic Power Model Perspective
               Power Model Mathematical Framework
EE-SE Trade-Off on a Link 
     AWGN Channel 
     Deterministic Channel with Colored Gaussian Noise 
     Ergodic Rayleigh Fading Channel 
          Channel Capacity: CFE vs. CFA 
          CFA of the MIMO EE-SE Trade-Off 
          CFA of the SISO EE-SE Trade-Off 
          Accuracy of the CFAs: Numerical Results 
     MIMO vs. SISO: An Energy Efficiency Analysis 
          MIMO vs. SISO EE Gain: Idealistic PCM 
          MIMO vs. SISO EE Gain: Realistic PCM
EE-SE Trade-Off in a Cell 
     SISO Orthogonal Multi-User Channel 
     SISO Multi-User Channel with Residual Interference 
     EE-Based Resource Allocation 
          Single User Optimal EE 
          EE vs. SE Resource Allocation
EE-SE Trade-Off in Cellular Systems
     The Key Role of CoMP in Cellular Systems 
          Relevant Background on CoMP 
     Power Model Implications 
          Backhaul 
          Signal Processing 
          Global Cooperation: CFA of EE-SE Trade-Off 
               EE-SE Analysis of the Symmetrical Cellular Model 
     Clustered CoMP: The Transmit EE-SE Relationship
Conclusion and Outlook

Energy Savings for Mobile Communication Networks through Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management; Adnan Aijaz, Oliver Holland, Paul Pangalos, Hamid Aghvami, and Hanna Bogucka
Background
Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management 
     Power Saving by Dynamically Powering Down Radio Network Equipment 
          Cellular - Cellular Offloading 
          Cellular - Wi-Fi Offloading 
          Cellular - White-Fi Offloading 
     Power Saving by Propagation Improvement 
     Power Saving by Channel Bandwidth Increase or Better Balancing
Performance Assessment 
     Power Saving by Dynamically Powering Down Radio Network Equipment 
          Cellular - Cellular Offloading 
          Cellular - Wi-Fi Offloading 
          Cellular - White-Fi Offloading 
     Power Saving by Propagation Improvement 
     Power Saving by Channel Bandwidth Increase or Better Balancing
Conclusion

Toward Energy-Efficient Operation of Base Stations in Cellular Wireless Networks; Kyuho Son, Hongseok Kim, Yung Yi, and Bhaskar Krishnamachari
Introduction
Overview of Green Cellular Network Design
Energy-Aware Heterogeneous Deployment
     Micro Base Station Deployment Strategy 
          System Model
          Problem Formulation 
          Key Observations and Algorithm 
          Numerical Results 
     Deployment Structure: Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous
          System Model 
          Problem Formulation 
          Optimal Area Power Consumption vs. Target 10-Percentile Area Throughput 
Base Station On/Off and User Association 
     A Quantitative Case Study 
          System Model and Formulation 
          Energy-Efficient User Association 
     Traffic-Driven Base Station On/Off 
          Greedy Turning on Algorithm 
          Design Rationale 
          Greedy Turning off Algorithm 
     Discussion: GON and GOFF 
          Interpretation
          Other Heuristic Algorithms 
     Numerical Results 
          Energy-Delay Tradeoff for Energy-Proportional BSs 
          Energy-Delay Tradeoff for Non-Energy-Proportional BSs 
          Effect of BS Density on Energy Savings 
Other Issues and Discussions 
     Open Problems and Other Directions Towards Green Cellular Networks 
     Ongoing Projects and Consortiums

Green Wireless Access Networks; Istvan Godor & Pal Frenger, Oliver Blume, Hauke Holtkamp, Muhammad Imran, Attila Vidacs & Peter Fazekas, Dario Sabella, Emilio Calvanese Strinati & Rohit Gupta, Pekka Pirinen, and Albrecht Fehske
Introduction 
     Motivation 
     Energy Efficiency and Network Technologies 
     Energy Efficiency Evaluation Framework
Cell Deployment Strategies 
     Macro Cell Deployment 
     Heterogeneous Cell Deployment
Relaying Techniques 
     Relaying Schemes 
     Two Hop vs. Multicast Cooperative Relaying 
     Hybrid Schemes for Two Hop Relaying
Multi-RAT Deployment 
     Aspects of LTE Roll-Out over Legacy Networks 
     Topology Planning In Multi-RAT Environment 
     Comparison of LTE and Legacy Networks
Base Station Coordination and Cooperation 
     Fractional Frequency Reuse 
     Cooperating Base Stations
Adaptive Network Reconfiguration 
     Bandwidth Adaptation 
     Multi-RAT Management
Radio Resource Management 
     Theoretical Considerations 
     High Load Scheduling 
     Low Load Scheduling 
     Hardware Optimal Scheduling
Complementary Research Activities for Access Networks 
     Operator Cooperation 
     Management of WLANs 
     Hardware Techniques
Future Architectures 
     De-coupling of System Information and User Data 
     Coverage Extension by Multihop Relaying 
     Network Coding
Summary and Outlook

Energy Efficient Communications in MIMO Wireless Channels; Vineeth S. Varma, E. Veronica Belmega, Samson Lasaulce and Merouane Debbah
Introduction
On the Design of Energy-Efficient MIMO Single-User Communications 
     General De nition of the Energy-Efficiency Performance Criterion
     Optimizing the Total Transmit Power and Power Allocation in MIMO Channels with Perfect CSI 
          Static Links 
          Fast Fading Links 
          Slow Fading Links 
     Energy Efficient Communication in MIMO Channels with Imperfect CSI 
          Power Control 
          Optimizing Training Sequence Length 
          Optimizing the Number of Transmit Antennas
     Cross Layer Design in Energy-Efficient Communications
On the Design of Energy-Efficient MIMO Multi-User Communications 
     A Discussion on the Performance Criterion 
     Power Control in Multi-Carrier CDMA Systems 
     The Case of Specific Transmitter and Receiver Structures, Multiplexing and Diversity Gain 
     Non-Cooperative Resource Allocation in Multi-User MIMO Systems 
          Optimizing Transmit Power with a Matched Filter 
          Optimizing the Choice of Linear Receiver 
          Optimizing the Beamforming Vector
Concluding Remarks and Open Issues
Glossary

Minimising Power Consumption to Achieve More Efficient Green Cellular Radio Base Station Designs; John S. Thompson, Peter M. Grant, Simon Fletcher, and Tim O'Farrell
Introduction 
     Explosive Traffic Growth 
     Cellular Scenarios 
     Energy Metrics
Energy Reduction Techniques for High Traffic Load Scenarios
Energy Reduction Techniques for Low Traffic Load Scenarios
Other Energy Reduction Techniques
Conclusion

Energy Conservation of Mobile Terminals in Multi-cell TDMA Networks; Liqun Fu, Hongseok Kim, Jianwei Huang, Soung Chang Liew, and Mung Chiang
Introduction 
     Challenges and Our Solution 
     Related Work
System Model 
     Power Consumption Model 
     Inter-Cell Interference 
     Dynamic User Sessions
Problem Formulation and Decoupling Property 
     Power Minimization in Multi-Cell Networks 
     Intra-Cell Average Power Minimization 
     Decoupling Property
The DSP Algorithm 
     DSP Algorithm When δ ≤ 0 
     DSP Algorithm When δ > 0
Simulation results 
     Power Consumption Improvement 
     Reduction of the Inter-Cell Interference Power Level
     Convergence Performance
Potential Research Directions 
Conclusion

Energy Efficiency for Wireless Relay Systems
; Jinho Choi, Duc To, Weixi Xing, Ye Wu, and Shugong Xu
Introduction 
Background 
     HARQ and Energy-Delay Tradeoff 
     Wireless Relay Systems
One-Way Relay Systems
     EDT with Amplify-and-Forward Protocol 
     EDT with Decode-and-Forward Protocol 
     Analysis and Numerical Results
Two-Way Relay systems 
     EDT with Analog Network Coding 
     EDT with Physical-Layer Network Coding 
     Analysis and Numerical Results
Conclusions

Holistic Approach to Green Wireless Communications Based on Multicarrier Technologies; Hanna Bogucka, Adrian Kliks, Pawe l Kryszkiewicz, and Oliver Holland
Introduction
Efficient Use of Natural Resources in Wireless Multicarrier
     Energy-and-Spectrum Efficient OFDM Adaptive Transmission 
     OFDM Energy-Wastage Minimization
Reducing the Electromagnetic Pollution
     OFDM Out-of-Band Radiation Reduction 
     Holistic View On Reduction of Non-Linear Distortions In OFDM
Spectrum Recycling in Future Multicarrier
     NC-OFDM Spectrum Access with Taxation
Concluding Remarks

Green Video Streaming over Cellular Networks; Yingsong Huang, Shiwen Mao, and Yihan Li
Introduction
Green Video Communications 
     Video Communication System Overview 
     Energy Efficiency in Video Coding
     Energy Efficiency in Video Transmission 
     Joint Video Coding and Transmission Design 
     Video over Emerging Wireless Networks
Energy Efficient Downlink VBR Video Streaming 
     Overview 
     System Model 
          Network and Video Source Model 
          Power-Aware Transmission Scheduling 
     Inequality and Theory of Majorization 
          Majorization Preliminaries
          Schur-convexity of Problem (23.10) 
     Power Allocation Algorithms 
          Optimal Algorithm for Problem (23.10) 
          Power Minimization Algorithm 
          Optimality Proof 
          Multiuser Video Transmissions 
     Performance Evaluation
Conclusion and Future Directions

FOCUS ON WIRELINE COMMUNICATIONS

Trading off Energy and Forwarding Performance in Next-Generation Network Devices; Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, Franco Davoli, and Paolo Lago
Introduction
The Devices' Internal Sources of Energy Consumption
Power Scaling Techniques
A Theoretical Model of the Trade-Off Between Energy Consumption and Quality of Service 
     Introducing Energy-Aware Parameters 
     The Traffic Arrival Process Model 
     The Queuing System Model 
     Model Validation
Conclusions

Energy Efficient VI Planning over Converged Optical Network and IT Resources
; Anna Tzanakaki, Markos Anastasopoulos, Konstantinos Georgakilas, Shuping Peng, Reja Nejabati, Eduard Escalona, and Dimitra Simeonidou
Introduction 
Energy Consumption Models for the Physical Infrastructure
     Optical Network Elements 
     Energy Consumption Models for Computing Resources 
     Energy Aware VI Planning 
          VI Problem Formulation 
          VI Planning With Resilience Considerations 
Numerical Results and Comparisons
Conclusions

Energy Aware Techniques In IP-Over-WDM Backbone Networks; Antonio Cianfrani, Angelo Coiro, Vincenzo Eramo, and Marco Listanti
Introduction
Power Aware Network Topology Design 
     Power Aware Virtual Topology Design (PA-VTD) 
     Power Aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment (PA-RWA)
Energy Aware Traffic Engineering 
     EA-TE Overlay Strategies 
     EA-TE Integrated Strategies

Energy-Aware Network Management and Content Distribution; Luca Chiaraviglio and Ibrahim Matta
Introduction
Problem Formulation 
     Classical Design 
     Centralized Green Model
Distributed Algorithms 
     Dual Green Algorithm 
     Benders Green Algorithm
Performance Evaluation 
     Centralized Model 
          Impact of Cooperation 
          Impact of QoS Constraints 
          Impact of CP Location 
     Distributed Algorithms 
          Comparison 
          Sensitivity Analysis
Discussion
Related Work
Conclusions 

Energy Saving Strategies in Fixed Access Networks
; Bjorn Skubic, Alexander Lindstrom, Einar In de Betou, Ioanna Pappa
Introduction
Technology 
     Equipment Models 
     System Specific Contributions 
     Per-Line Comparison
Architecture
Dynamic Power Management
     Sleep Mode
Conclusions
Glossary
Index

Author Bio(s)