Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering (Two-Volume Set)

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ISBN 9781439866559
Cat# K12971

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Features

  • Integrates all aspects of structural health, including monitoring, structural identification, and damage detection
  • Includes practical case studies
  • Presents the latest techniques in sensing and sensor utilization
  • Links the decision making concept to damage identification and structural monitoring

Summary

Winner of the Inaugural Journal of Bridge Structures’ Book Award

Continually increasing demands on infrastructure mean that maintenance and renewal require timely, appropriate action that maximizes benefits while minimizing cost. To be as well informed as possible, decision-makers must have an optimal understanding of an infrastructure’s condition—what it is now, and what it is expected to be in the future. Written by two respected engineers, Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering is presented in two corresponding volumes that integrate the decision making concept into theoretical and practical issues.

The first volume, Theory and Components, includes:

  • An overview of the infrastructure health in civil engineering (IHCE) and associated theories
  • In-depth description of the four components of IHCE: measurements, structural identification, damage identification, and decision making
  • Discussion of how IHCE and asset management are applied
  • Exploration of analogies between structural and human health

The second volume, Applications and Management, covers:

  • State-of-the-art practices and future directions
  • Use of probability and statistics in areas including structural modeling
  • Specific practical applications, including retrofitting and rehabilitation in response to earthquake damage, corrosion, fatigue, and bridge security
  • Use of IHCE for management and maintenance of different types of structures using pre-stressed and reinforced concrete, and fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs)
  • Numerous practical case studies, as well as coverage of the latest techniques in the use of sensors for damage detection and load testing

This set comprises, perhaps for the first time, an invaluable integrated guide to the wide range of structural hazards—including scour, earthquakes, fatigue, corrosion, and damage to pre-stressed systems. It then lays out the optimized, cost-saving methods that will help readers meet safety specifications for new projects, as well as the aging infrastructure at great risk of failure.

Table of Contents

VOLUME 1: THEORY AND COMPONENTS

 

PART I: Overview and Theories of IHCE

Introduction

Infrastructure Health in Civil Engineering (IHCE)

General Concepts of Infrastructures Health

History of Structural Health Efforts

Need for Infrastructure Health Efforts

Analogy with Human Health

Structural Health: A New Field in Civil Engineering?

Structural Health: Integration of Fields

Horizontal Integration: Multihazards

Vertical Integration: Multidisciplinary

SHM and IHCE: a Quick Primer

Challenges Ahead

Appendix I: DHS Infrastructure Sectors (as of 2009)


Elements of Structural Health in Civil Engineering (SHCE)

SHCE: A New Field in Civil Engineering?

SHCE: Baseball Analogy

SHCE and DESIGN Paradigms

NDT versus SHM

Value of Information


Lives and Deaths of Infrastructures

Overview

Birth of Bridges

Why Bridges Live?

Why Bridges Fail/Die?

Examples of Bridge Failures

Appendix I: Count of Bridges in the United States by Construction Material

References


Theories and Principles of IHCE

Introduction

General theory of Experimentation (GTE)

Special Theory of Experimentation (STE)

Theory of SHM Triangulation

Duality Principle in SHM

Scaling Principle in SHM

Serendipity Principle in SHM

 

PART II: Components of IHCE

Sensors and Infrastructures Health

Introduction

Sensor Categorizations

Basics of Sensor Behavior

Sensor Measurements in SHM

Emerging Technology: Fiber Optics Sensors

Wireless Sensors

Smart Structures

Optimum Sensor Selection

Optimum Sensor Location

Step by Step Guide for Choosing Sensors

Remote Sensing in SHM


Structural Identification (STRID)

Introduction

STRID Processes

Modal Identification Methods

Parameter Identification (PI)

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

Other Methods

Modeling Techniques

Scale Independent Methods (SIM)

Case Studies

Life Cycle Analysis and STRID

Cost-Benefit Analysis of STRID


Damage Identification (DMID)

Introduction

Damage Parameters

STRID, DMID, and SHM

NDT Techniques

Acoustic Emission

Vibration-based Methods

Signal Processing and DMID

Damage Identification in SHM

Appendix: Lamb Waves

Appendix: Dispersion Curves

Appendix: Helmholtz Equation

Appendix: Angular Spectrum Method


Decision Making in IHCE

Introduction

Decision Making Process and Structural Health Components

Probability and Statistics

Traditional Theories of Decision Making

Reliability

Risk

Stochastic Models

Structural Analysis in Decision Making

Financial Considerations


Appendices 

 

 

VOLUME 2: APPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

 

PART III: Applications

Scour

Introduction

Types and Causes of Scour

Scour Mitigation Measures

Bridge Health and Scour

Case Studies

Bridge Life Cycle Analysis and Scour Effects

Decision Making and SCOUR

Management Strategies for Scour Hazard

Appendix: NBI System


Earthquakes

Introduction

Bridge Components and Seismic Hazards

SHM Components and Seismic Hazards

Case Studies

Decision Making and Earthquake Hazard

General Engineering Paradigms, Earthquakes, and Structural Health

Resilience of Infrastructures

LCA and Earthquake Hazards


Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Introduction

Corrosion: The problem

Corrosion Monitoring

Corrosion Mitigation Methods

STRID and Corrosion Hazard

Decision Making and Corrosion Hazard

Case Studies

Bridge Life Cycle Analysis and Corrosion Monitoring

Appendix: Chloride Diffusion and Corrosion Initiation


Pre-stressed Concrete Bridges

Introduction

Anatomy of PSC Bridges

Damage to PSC Bridges

Structural Identification

Damage Detection

Decision Making

Case Studies

LCA of PT-PS Systems


Fatigue

Introduction

NDT Treatment of Fatigue

SHM Treatment of Fatigue

Virtual Sensing Paradigm

Step-by-Step Approach for Remaining Fatigue Life

Dynamic and Fatigue Analysis of a Truss Bridge with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Deck

Estimating Fatigue Life of Bridge Components Using Measured Strains: Practical Application

BLCA and Fatigue

Dirlik Rainflow Empirical Solution


Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Bridge Decks

Introduction

The Advent of FRP Bridge Decks

Health of FRP Bridge Deck

Decision Making and FRP Bridge Decks

Case Studies

LCA for FRP Bridge Decks


Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Wrapping

Introduction

Physical and Theoretical Background

NDT Methods for FRP Wrapping

Applications

East Church Street Bridge

Troy Bridge

Congress Street Bridge

Guide to SHM Usage in FRP Wrapping

Decision Making Example: When to Retrofit with FRP Wrapping?

LCA of FRP Wrapping

Sources of Damage in FRP Laminates

 

PART IV: Management of Infrastructure Health

Load Testing

Introduction

General Considerations for Load Testing

Categories of Load Tests

Sensors, Instrumentations, Hardware, and Software

STRID in Load Testing

Damage Identification in Load Testing

Decision Making in Load Testing

Cost, Benefit, and LCA of Bridge Load Tests

Monitoring and Load Testing of Court Street Bridge

Load Testing for Bridge Rating: Route 22 Over Swamp River


Bridge Management and Infrastructure Health

Introduction

Bridge Management Strategies and SHM

Deterioration

Inspection

Maintenance

Repair

Bridge Management Tools and SHM


Life-Cycle Analysis and Infrastructure Health

Introduction

Bridge Life Cycle Cost Analysis

Bridge Life Cycle Benefit Analysis

Bridge Lifespan Analysis

Interrelationship of BLCCA, BLCBA, and BLSA

Use of BLCA in Decision Making

SHM Role in BLCCA, BLCBA, and BLSA

Generalized Approach to LCA


Role of Structural Health Monitoring in Enhancing Bridge Security

Introduction

Concept of 4Ds

Security-Specific Technology and SHM Utilization

SHM-Specific Techniques and Bridge Security

Decision Making: Prioritization

Life Cycle Analysis

Concluding Remarks


Appendices

Editorial Reviews

"Written by two respected engineers … integrates the decision-making concept into theoretical and practical issues. … sets up the path, details, and needs for a new field in civil engineering: infrastructure health."
Journal of Bridge Engineering, May/June 2012