Characterization of Nanostructures

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Features

  • Presents methods and techniques that apply specifically to nanostructure R&D
  • Offers a holistic description of how new and old techniques and methods can be used together for best results
  • Provides an overview of the physical principles of techniques and describes the operational modes most relevant to nanoscale characterization
  • Documents a myriad of synthesis routes for carbon nanostructures that have been developed in recent years
  • Covers systems of different dimensionalities and functionalities
  • Includes a framework based on strategic and tactical thinking about nanoscale characterization

Summary

The techniques and methods that can be applied to materials characterization on the microscale are numerous and well-established. Divided into two parts, Characterization of Nanostructures provides thumbnail sketches of the most widely used techniques and methods that apply to nanostructures, and discusses typical applications to single nanoscale objects, as well as to ensembles of such objects.

Section I: Techniques and Methods overviews the physical principles of the main techniques and describes those operational modes that are most relevant to nanoscale characterization. It provides sufficient technical detail so that readers and prospective users can gain an appreciation of the strengths and limitations of particular techniques. The section covers both mainstream and less commonly used techniques.

Section II: Applications of Techniques to Structures of Different Dimensionalities and Functionalities deals with the methods for materials characterization of generic types of systems, using carefully chosen illustrations from the literature. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the materials and supplies a context for the methods for characterization. The volume concludes with a series of flow charts and brief descriptions of tactical issues.

The authors focus on the needs of the research laboratory but also address those of quality control, industrial troubleshooting, and online analysis. Characterization of Nanostructures describes those techniques and their operational modes that are most relevant to nanoscale characterization. It is especially relevant to systems of different dimensionalities and functionalities. The book builds a bridge between generalists, who play vital roles in the post-disciplinary area of nanotechnology, and specialists, who view themselves as more in the context of the discipline.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Characterization of Nanostructures
Nanotechnology—In the Beginning There Was the Idea
Nanotechnology as a Practical Proposition
What Is Nanotechnology?
Materials Characterization—What Is It?
Current State of ‘Best Practice’ and QA

Section I Techniques and Methods
Electron-Optical Imaging of Nanostructures ((HR)TEM, STEM, and SEM)
Introduction
TEM Overview
Interactions of Electrons with Matter
Aberration Correction
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)
The Issue of Radiation Damage during Imaging and Analysis
Examples of SEM Performance
Optimization of Image Quality

Electron-Optical Analytical Techniques
Introduction
Loss Processes
EDS
EELS
Technical Implementation and Methods
Complementarity of EDS and EELS: A Case Study

Photon-Optical Spectroscopy—Raman and Fluorescence
Introduction
Raman Spectroscopy
Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Scanning Probe Techniques and Methods
Introduction
Technical Implementation
STM/STS
SFM
SCM
SNOM
SECM
Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP)
Scanning Ion Current Microscopy (SICM)
Future Prospects

Techniques and Methods for Nanoscale Analysis of Single Particles and Ensembles of Particles
Introduction
Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) or Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS)
Differential Centrifugal Sedimentation (DCS)
Zeta Potential
Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS)
Surface Area Determination
Surface and Bulk Chemistry
Overview—Choices of Technique(s)

Section II Applications
C60 and Other Cage Structures
Introduction
Characterization of Fullerenes and Fullerene
Compounds
Endohedral Fullerenes
Fullerites
Peapod Fullerenes in CNT

Quantum Dots and Related Structures
Introduction
Particles in 2-D and 3-D Confinement
Synthesis Routes for Quantum Dots
Characterization of Quantum Dots
Absorption and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots

Carbon Nanotubes and Other Tube Structures
Introduction
Description of CNT Structure
Synthesis Routes
Electronic Structure of Graphene and SWCNT
General Characteristics of CNTs
Other Tube Structures
Characterization of Nanotubes

Nanowires
Introduction
Synthesis Routes
Characterisation of Nanowires by SEM and TEM
Characterisation of Nanowire Heterostructures
Characterization Related to Potential Applications

Graphene and Other Monolayer Structures
Introduction
Graphene Structure
Summary of Electronic Structure
Other 2-D Structures (Nanosheets)
Overview of Synthesis Routes
Structural Characterization
Raman Spectroscopic Characterization
Characterization of Electronic Structure

Nanostructures—Strategic and Tactical Issues
Thinking about Strategy
Thinking about Tactics
Strategic Issues
Preparation of Specimens for Characterization of Nanostructures
Ensemble Averages: Limitations
‘Soft’ Materials—Specimen Preparation
Cleanliness
User-friendliness
Cost-Effectiveness

Author Bio(s)

Sverre Myhra and John Riviere are affiliated with Oxford University, UK.

Editorial Reviews

"This book provides an understanding of the fundamental concepts of characterisation techniques for nanomaterials such as graphene, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots. The authors have nicely presented the complex theory of the physical techniques in a simple manner that will have immense benefit for the nanoscience community. … This book will be a valuable asset to students and newcomers to the field. Nanoscience researchers will also benefit as it covers the theory, techniques and applications from basic to advanced levels with up to date bibliographic information."
Tapas Sen, Chemistry World, April 2013