Time-Triggered Communication

Time-Triggered Communication

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Features

  • Addresses cross-domain applications (e.g., automotive, aerospace, railway)
  • Uses industrial applications to demonstrate the application of time-triggered communication and the importance of properties
  • Evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of time-triggered communication
  • Includes the most significant protocols (e.g., FlexRay, TTE, TTCAN)
  • Provides a theoretical foundation, along with real-world case studies and examples

Summary

Time-Triggered Communication helps readers build an understanding of the conceptual foundation, operation, and application of time-triggered communication, which is widely used for embedded systems in a diverse range of industries. This book assembles contributions from experts that examine the differences and commonalities of the most significant protocols including: TTP, FlexRay, TTEthernet, SAFEbus, TTCAN, and LIN.

Covering the spectrum, from low-cost time-triggered fieldbus networks to ultra-reliable time-triggered networks used for safety-critical applications, the authors illustrate the inherent benefits of time-triggered communication in terms of predictability, complexity management, fault-tolerance, and analytical dependability modeling, which are key aspects of safety-critical systems. Examples covered include FlexRay in cars, TTP in railway and avionic systems, and TTEthernet in aerospace applications. Illustrating key concepts based on real-world industrial applications, this book:

  • Details the underlying concepts and principles of time-triggered communication
  • Explores the properties of a time-triggered communication system, contrasting its strengths and weaknesses
  • Focuses on the core algorithms applied in many systems, including those used for clock synchronization, startup, membership, and fault isolation
  • Describes the protocols that incorporate presented algorithms
  • Covers tooling requirements and solutions for system integration, including scheduling

The information in this book is extremely useful to industry leaders who design and manufacture products with distributed embedded systems based on time-triggered communication. It also benefits suppliers of embedded components or development tools used in this area. As an educational tool, this material can be used to teach students and working professionals in areas including embedded systems, computer networks, system architectures, dependability, real-time systems, and automotive, avionics, and industrial control systems.

Table of Contents

Introduction, R. Obermaisser

Scope of the Book

Structure of the Book


Basic Concepts and Principles of Time-Triggered Communication, R. Obermaisser and H. Kopetz

System Structure

Concepts of Dependability

Global Time and State

Autonomous Control of Communication Networks


Properties of Time-Triggered Communication Systems, R. Obermaisser and H. Kopetz

Composability

Determinism and Predictability

Diagnosability

Certifiability

Fault Containment and Error Containment

Performance


Core Algorithms, M. Paulitsch, W. Steiner, R. Obermaisser, and C. El Salloum

Clock Synchronization

Startup and Restart

Integration of Event-Triggered and Time-Triggered Communication

Diagnostic Services


Time-Triggered Protocol (TTP/C), R. Obermaisser

Protocol Overview

Protocol Services

Protocol Parameterization

Communication Interface

Protocol States

Validation and Verification Efforts

Example Configurations and Implementations


FlexRay, C. El Salloum and K. Bilic

Protocol Overview

Protocol Services

Diagnostic Services and Fault Isolation

Protocol Parameterization

Controller Host Interface

Example Configurations and Implementations


SAFEbus, M. Paulitsch and K.R. Driscoll

SAFEbus

Protocol Overview

Protocol Services

Communication Interface

Validation and Verification Efforts

Example Configurations and Implementations


Time-Triggered Ethernet, W. Steiner, G. Bauer, B. Hall, and M. Paulitsch

Protocol Overview

Protocol Services

Protocol Parameterization

Communication Interface

Validation and Verification Efforts

Example Configurations and Implementations


TTCAN, R. Kammerer

Protocol Overview

Protocol Services

Protocol Parameterization

Communication Interface

Validation and Verification Efforts

Example Configurations and Implementations


LIN, W. Elmenreich

Protocol Overview

Protocol Services

LIN 2.x

Communication Interface

Validation and Verification Efforts

Example Configurations and Implementations


TTP/A, W. Elmenreich

Protocol Overview

OMG Smart Transducer Standard

Interface File System (IFS)

Protocol Services

Communication Interface

Validation and Verification Efforts

Example Configurations and Implementations


BRAIN, M. Paulitsch, B. Hall, and K.R. Driscoll

Protocol Overview

Protocol Mechanisms and Services

Fault Isolation

Diagnostic and Agreement Services

Validation and Verification Efforts

Example Configurations, Implementations and Deployment Considerations


ASCB – Avionics Standard Communications Bus, M. Paulitsch

Protocol Overview

Protocol Services

Protocol Parameterization

Communication Interface

Validation and Verification Efforts

Example Configurations and Implementations


Industrial Applications, M. Paulitsch, E. Schmidt, C. Scherrer, and H. Kantz

Time-Triggered Communication in Aerospace

Time-Triggered Communication in Automotive Applications

Time-Triggered Communication Services in Railway Applications


Development Tools, P. Pop, A. Goller, T. Pop, and P. Eles

Design Tasks

Schedule Generation

Holistic Scheduling and Optimization

Incremental Design

Integration of Time-Triggered Communication with Event-Triggered

Tasks

Configuration and Code Generation

Verification

Editor Bio(s)

Roman Obermaisser is project manager and docent at the Institute for Computer Engineering, Real-Time Systems Group at Vienna University of Technology.

Editorial Reviews

"It is an excellent companion for those who seek to learn more about time-triggered communication or found themselves involved in the conception of time-triggered base solutions and the development of the arising technologies."
—Richard Zurawski, IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, December 2011

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