Mineral Admixtures in Cement and Concrete

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ISBN 9781439817926
Cat# K10930



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ISBN 9781439817933
Cat# KE10842



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  • Shows how to design workable and durable concrete using mineral admixtures
  • Examines innovative and lesser-known admixtures such as biomass ash and rice husk ash
  • Provides an understanding of concrete durability and how to mitigate deterioration
  • Explains the effect of mineral admixtures on the development of strength-giving chemical phases
  • Discusses materials, chemical, and hydration aspects that are relevant for civil engineers, without going into complex aspects of chemistry
  • Addresses toxicity and occupational health aspects where relevant


Written to meet the requirements of engineers working in construction and concrete manufacturing, Mineral Admixtures in Cement and Concrete focuses on how to make more workable and durable concrete using mineral admixtures. In particular, it covers pulverized fuel ash (PFA), blast furnace slag (BFS), silica fume (SF), rice husk ash (RHA), and metakaolin (MK), as well as some new admixtures currently under investigation.

For each mineral admixture, the book looks at manufacturing and processing, physical characteristics, chemical and mineralogical composition, quality control, and reported experiences. It also examines the provisions of national standards on the admixture’s addition to cement and concrete. References to microstructures and chemistry are kept to a minimum and only discussed to the extent necessary to help readers apply the admixtures in practice.

The book also addresses hydration, presenting the relevant chemistry and detailing the impact of adding mineral admixtures to concrete. A chapter on strength and durability explains the mechanisms, models, and standards related to concrete deterioration and how to mitigate carbonation, alkali-aggregate reactions, chloride attack and corrosion of reinforcement, external and internal sulphate attack, decalcification, and freeze-thaw action.

This book is a useful reference for practicing engineers and students alike. It brings together, in one volume, information on the materials, hydration, and the strength and durability of cement and concrete with mineral admixtures. Offering a deeper understanding of mineral admixtures, it encourages engineers to more effectively use these and other wastes in cement and concrete to support more sustainable growth of the cement and construction industry.

Table of Contents

Pulverized Fuel Ash
Physical Characteristics
Chemical and Mineralogical Composition
Characteristics of PFA Produced in Fluidized Bed Combustion Process
Characteristics of PFA Produced after Co-Combustion of Bituminous Coal and Petcoke
Leaching Characteristics
Radioactivity, Toxicity, and Occupational Health
Processing for Quality Improvement and Assurance
Processing of Unusable PFA
Quality Control
Addition of PFA to Cement and Concrete

Blast Furnace Slag
Granulation of BFS
Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
Chemical and Mineralogical Composition of Cementitious BFS
Quality Control
Addition of BFS and GGBS to Cement and Concrete
Quantitative Determination of Blast Furnace Slag in Cement

Silica Fume
Types of Silica Fume
Physical Characteristics
Chemical and Mineralogical Composition
Toxicity and Occupational Health
Quality Control
Addition of SF to Cement and Concrete

Rice Husk Ash
Relevance of RHA for the Sustainability of Construction Industry
Rice Husk
Physical and Chemical Characteristics
Addition of RHA to Cement and Concrete

Physical and Chemical Characteristics
Quality Control
Addition of Metakaolin to Cement and Concrete

Progress of Hydration with Time (Hydration Periods)
Reactants in Hydration Process
Voids in Hydrated Cement Paste
Interrelation of the Hydration Properties of Cement and Concrete
Properties of Concrete during Early Stages of Hydration
Hydration Reactions and Changes in Early-Age Concrete Properties

Strength and Durability
Designing Structures for Strength and Durability
Concrete Strength
Mechanisms, Models, Standards, and Mitigation of Concrete Deterioration
Durability Indices for Performance Based Design of Structures
Sustainable Cement and Concrete

New Mineral Admixtures
Biomass Combustion Ash
Calcined Wastepaper Sludge
Electric-Arc Furnace Dust
Sewage Sludge Ash
Municipal Solid Waste Ash



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