In the past several decades, the research on spin transport and magnetism has led to remarkable scientific and technological breakthroughs, including Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg’s Nobel Prize-winning discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in magnetic metallic multilayers. Handbook of Spin Transport and Magnetism provides a comprehensive, balanced account of the state of the art in the field known as spin electronics or spintronics. It reveals how key phenomena first discovered in one class of materials, such as spin injection in metals, have been revisited decades later in other materials systems, including silicon, organic semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carefully engineered nanostructures.
The first section of the book offers a historical and personal perspective of the field written by Nobel Prize laureate Albert Fert. The second section addresses physical phenomena, such as GMR, in hybrid structures of ferromagnetic and normal metals. The third section discusses recent developments in spin-dependent tunneling, including magnetic tunnel junctions with ferroelectric barriers. In the fourth section, the contributors look at how to control spin and magnetism in semiconductors. In the fifth section, they examine phenomena typically found in nanostructures made from metals, superconductors, molecular magnets, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, and graphene. The final section covers novel spin-based applications, including advanced magnetic sensors, nonvolatile magnetoresistive random access memory, and semiconductor spin-lasers.
The techniques and materials of spintronics have rapidly evolved in recent years, leading to vast improvements in hard drive storage and magnetic sensing. With extensive cross-references between chapters, this seminal handbook provides a complete guide to spin transport and magnetism across various classes of materials and structures.
Historical Overview: From Electron Transport in Magnetic Materials to Spintronics
Spin Transport and Magnetism in Magnetic Metallic Multilayers
Basics of Nano-Thin Film Magnetism
Micromagnetism as a Prototype for Complexity.
Anthony S. Arrott
Giant Magnetoresistance: Experiment
Giant Magnetoresistance: Theory
Evgeny Y. Tsymbal, D.G. Pettifor, and Sadamichi Maekawa
Spin Injection, Accumulation, and Relaxation in Metals
Spin Torque Effects: Experiment
Spin Torque in Magnetic Systems: Theory
A. Manchon and Shufeng Zhang
Hot Carrier Spin Transport
Spin Transport and Magnetism in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions
Tunneling Magnetoresistance: Experiment (Non-MgO)
Patrick R. LeClair and Jagadeesh S. Moodera
Tunnel Magnetoresistance in MgO-Based Magnetic Tunnel JunctionsExperiment
Tunneling Magnetoresistance: Theory
Kirill D. Belashchenko and Evgeny Y. Tsymbal
Tiffany S. Santos and Jagadeesh S. Moodera
Spin Torques in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions.
Yoshishige Suzuki and Hitoshi Kubota
Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions
Manuel Bibes and Agnes Barthelemy
Spin Transport and Magnetism in Semiconductors
Spin Relaxation and Spin Dynamics in Semiconductors
Jaroslav Fabian and M.W. Wu
Electrical Spin Injection and Transport in Semiconductors
Berend T. Jonker
Spin-Polarized Ballistic Hot-Electron Injection and Detection in Hybrid Metal Semiconductor Devices
Magnetic Semiconductors: IIIV Semiconductors
Magnetism of Dilute Oxides
Tunneling Magnetoresistance and Spin Transfer with (Ga,Mn)As
H. Jaffres and Jean Marie George
Spin Transport in Organic Semiconductors
Valentin Dediu, Luis E. Hueso, and Ilaria Bergenti
Spin Transport in Ferromagnet/IIIV Semiconductor Heterostructures
Paul A. Crowell and Scott A. Crooker
Spin Polarization by Current
Sergey D. Ganichev, Maxim Trushin, and John Schliemann
Anomalous and Spin-Injection Hall Effects
Jairo Sinova, Jorg Wunderlich, and Tomas Jungwirth
Spin Transport and Magnetism at the Nanoscale
Spin-Polarized Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Point Contact Andreev Ref lection Spectroscopy
Boris E. Nadgorny
Ballistic Spin Transport.
Bernard Doudin and N.T. Kemp
Csaba Jozsa and Bart J. van Wees
Magnetism and Transport in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Joaquin Fernandez Rossier and R. Aguado
Spin Transport in Hybrid Nanostructures
Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa
Nonlocal Spin Valves in Metallic Nanostructures
Yoshichika Otani and Takashi Kimura
Magnetoresistive Sensors Based on Magnetic Tunneling Junctions
Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory.
Emerging Spintronics Memories.
Stuart Parkin, Masamitsu Hayashi, Luc Thomas, Xin Jiang, Rai Moriya, and William Gallagher
GMR Spin-Valve Biosensors
Drew A. Hall, Richard S. Gaster, and Shan X. Wang
Rafał Oszwałdowski, Christian Gothgen, Jeongsu Lee, and Igor Žutic
Spin Logic Devices
Evgeny Y. Tsymbal is a Charles Bessey Professor of Physics and the director of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln (UNL). Dr. Tsymbal is a fellow of the American Physical Society, a fellow of the Institute of Physics (UK), and a recipient of UNL’s Outstanding Research and Creativity Award. His research in computational materials science focuses on the understanding of fundamental properties of advanced ferromagnetic and ferroelectric nanostructures and materials relevant to nanoelectronics and spintronics.
Igor Žutic is an associate professor of physics at the University at Buffalo (State University of New York). Dr. Žutic has been a recipient of the National Science Foundation CAREER Award, the National Research Council/American Society for Engineering Education Postdoctoral Research Award, and the National Research Council Fellowship. His research encompasses spin transport, magnetism, spintronics, and superconductivity.
This handbook is a timely, up-to-date review of the intricate relationship between both carrier and spin transport and magnetism in semiconductors and metals. The chapters are written by leading experts and will undoubtedly serve as a valuable reference for all workers in the field of spintronics.
—Professor Stephan von Molnár, Florida State University
[It] provides a wide perspective on spin-polarized electron transport in the bulk of solids, at interfaces, and in microstructures … a highly useful source for researchers, engineers, and students working in this fascinating and technologically important field.
—Emmanuel Rashba, Harvard University