Provides a basis for policy decisions regarding the geocoding of cancer incidencesDiscusses the advantages of using point-based, rather than area-based, cancer data in spatial epidemiologyIncludes a chapter on public policy and legal issues that discusses the existing statutory frameworkExamines future directions of methods and materials practices in geocoding as well as institutional changes Supplies a common knowledge base for educated non-specialists
In the past, disease pattern mapping depended on census tracts based on political units, such as states and counties. However, with the advent of geographic information systems (GIS), researchers can now achieve a new level of precision and flexibility in geographic locating. This emerging technology allows the mapping of many different kinds of geographies, including disease rates in relation to pollution sources.
Geocoding Health Data presents a state-of-the-art discussion on the current technical and administrative developments in geographic information science. In particular, it discusses how geocoded residential addresses can be used to examine the spatial patterns of cancer incidence, staging, survival, and mortality.
The book begins with an introduction of various codes and their uses, including census geographic, health area, and street level codes. It goes on to describe the specific application of geocodes to cancer, detailing methods, materials, and technical issues. The text illustrates how to compile data maps for analysis and addresses issues, such as mismatch correction and data quality. It describes the current state of geocoding practices and discusses the use of individually geocoded cancer incidences in spatial epidemiology, distance estimation and spatial accessibilities, and tips for handling non-geocoded cases. Special consideration is given to privacy and confidentiality issues by focusing on disclosure limitation methods.
With recent disease outbreaks and escalating concerns about bioterrorism, interest in the application of GIS to individual data is growing. The fundamental concepts presented by this book are of great value to anyone trying to understand the causes, prevention, and control of cancer as well as a variety of other diseases.
Table of Contents
Geocoding Methods, Materials, and First Steps toward a Geocoding Error Budget
M.P. Armstrong and C. Tiwari
Using ZIP codes as Geocodes in Cancer Research
K.M.M. Beyer, A.F. Schultz, and Z. Chen
Producing Spatially Continuous Prostate Cancer Maps with Different Geocodes and Spatial Filter Methods
G. Rushton, Q. Cai, and Z. Chen
The Science and Art of Geocoding: Tips for Improving Match Rates and Handling Unmatched Cases in Analysis
Geocoding Practices in Cancer Registries
T. Abe and D. Stinchcomb
Alternative Techniques for Masking Geographic Detail to Protect Privacy
D.L. Zimmerman, M.P. Armstrong, and Gerard Rushton
Preserving Privacy: Deidentifying Data by Applying a Random Perturbation Spatial Mask
Z. Chen, G. Rushton, and G. Smith
Spatial Statistical Analysis of Point- and Area-Reference Public Health Data
Statistical methods for Incompletely and Incorrectly Geocoded Cancer Data
D. L. Zimmerman
Using Geocodes to estimate Distances and geographic Accessibility for Cancer Prevention and Control
M. Armstrong, B. Greene, and G. Rushton
Cancer Registry Data and Geocoding:
Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security Issues
Appendix: Cancer Reporting and Registry Statutes and Regulations