Principles of Biomechanics

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Features

  • Focuses on fundamental principles in biosystems and the human body
  • Discusses biosystem modeling and elementary mechanics
  • Includes examples and problems to clarify material
  • Provides the basis for advanced study, research, and practice in biomechanics

Summary

Research and study in biomechanics has grown dramatically in recent years, to the extent that students, researchers, and practitioners in biomechanics now outnumber those working in the underlying discipline of mechanics itself. Filling a void in the current literature on this specialized niche, Principles of Biomechanics provides readers with a solid grasp of the fundamentals and the enabling procedures of this rapidly expanding field, placing a sharp focus on dynamic phenomena in the area of whole-body biomechanics.

Applies Biodynamic Models to Everyday Activities

Emphasizing biodynamic modeling and the analysis of human body models, the book begins with a review of gross human anatomy and a summary of basic terminology. It describes various methods of analysis, including elementary mathematics, elementary mechanics, and the fundamental concepts of the mechanics of materials. Later chapters discuss the modeling of biosystems, tissue biomechanics, biodynamics, kinematics, kinetics, and the inertial properties of human body models. The book concludes with a review of sample applications of biodynamic models in activities such as lifting, maneuvering in space, walking, and swimming, as well as crash victim simulation.

Uses simple language to convey complex principles

With numerous professionals in a range of areas entering this field daily, there is a pressing need for a book which captures for a wide audience the principles of biomechanics analysis. Readily accessible to those with only a basic background in engineering fundamentals, mathematics, and physics, this text enables readers to understand virtually all areas of human body dynamics ranging from simple movements to optimal motions to accident victim dynamics.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Principal Areas of Biomechanics
Approach in This Book
Review of Human Anatomy and Some Basic Terminology
Gross (Whole-Body) Modeling
Position and Direction Terminology
Terminology for Common Movements
Skeletal Anatomy
Major Joints
Major Muscle Groups
Anthropometric Data
Methods of Analysis I: Review of Vectors, Dyadics, Matrices, and Determinants
Vectors
Vector Algebra—Addition and Multiplication by Scalars
Vector Algebra—Multiplication of Vectors
Dyadics
Multiple Products of Vectors
Matrices/Arrays
Determinants
Relationship of 3 X 3 Determinants, Permutation Symbols and Kronecker Delta Functions
Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, and Principal Directions
Maximum and Minimum Eigenvalues and the Associated
Eigenvectors
Methods of Analysis II: Forces and Force Systems
Forces: Vector Representations
Moments of Forces
Moments of Forces About Lines
Systems of Forces
Special Force Systems
Principle of Action–Reaction
Methods of Analysis III: Mechanics of Materials
Concepts of Stress
Concepts of Strain
Principal Values of Stress and Strain
A Two-Dimensional Example—Mohr’s Circle
Elementary Stress–Strain Relations
General Stress–Strain (Constitutive) Relations
Equations of Equilibrium and Compatibility
Use of Curvilinear Coordinates
Review of Elementary Beam Theory
Thick Beams
Curved Beams
Singularity Functions
Elementary Illustrative Examples
Listing of Selected Beam Displacement and Bending Moment Results
Magnitude of Transverse Shear Stress
Torsion of Bars
Torsion of Members with Noncircular and Thin-Walled Cross Sections
Energy Methods
Methods of Analysis IV: Modeling of Biosystems
Multibody (Lumped Mass) Systems
Lower Body Arrays
Whole Body, Head/Neck, and Hand Models
Gross-Motion Modeling of Flexible Systems
Tissue Biomechanics
Hard and Soft Tissue
Bones
Bone Cells and Microstructure
Physical Properties of Bone
Bone Development (Wolff’s law)
Bone Failure (Fracture and Osteoporosis)
Muscle Tissue
Cartilage
Ligaments/Tendons
Scalp, Skull, and Brain Tissue
Skin Tissue
Kinematical Preliminaries: Fundamental Equations
Points, Particles, and Bodies
Particle, Position, and Reference Frames
Particle Velocity
Particle Acceleration
Absolute and Relative Velocity and Acceleration
Vector Differentiation, Angular Velocity
Two Useful Kinematic Procedures
Configuration Graphs
Use of Configuration Graphs to Determine Angular Velocity
Application with Biosystems
Angular Acceleration
Transformation Matrix Derivatives
Relative Velocity and Acceleration of Two Points Fixed
on a Body
Singularities Occurring with Angular Velocity Components
and Orientation Angles
Rotation Dyadics
Euler Parameters
Euler Parameters and Angular Velocity
Inverse Relations between Angular Velocity
and Euler Parameters
Numerical Integration of Governing Dynamical Equations
Kinematic Preliminaries: Inertia Force Considerations
Applied Forces and Inertia Forces
Mass Center
Equivalent Inertia Force Systems
Human Body Inertia Properties
Second Moment Vectors, Moments and Products of Inertia
Inertia Dyadics
Sets of Particles
Body Segments
Parallel Axis Theorem
Eigenvalues of Inertia, Principal Directions
Eigenvalues of Inertia: Symmetrical Bodies
Application with Human Body Models
Kinematics of Human Body Models
Notation, Degrees of Freedom, and Coordinates
Angular Velocities
Generalized Coordinates
Partial Angular Velocities
Transformation Matrices—Recursive Formulation
Generalized Speeds
Angular Velocities and Generalized Speeds
Angular Acceleration
Mass Center Positions
Mass Center Velocities
Mass Center Accelerations
Summary—Human Body Model Kinematics
Kinetics of Human Body Models
Applied (Active) and Inertia (Passive) Forces
Generalized Forces
Generalized Applied (Active) Forces on a Human Body Model
Forces Exerted Across Articulating Joints
Contribution of Gravity (Weight) Forces to the Generalized
Active Forces
Generalized Inertia Forces
Dynamics of Human Body Models
Kane’s Equations
Generalized Forces for a Human Body Model
Dynamical Equations
Formulation for Numerical Solutions
Constraint Equations
Constraint Forces
Constrained System Dynamics
Determination of Orthogonal Complement Arrays
Summary
Numerical Methods
Governing Equations
Numerical Development of the Governing Equations
Outline of Numerical Procedures
Algorithm Accuracy and Efficiency
Simulations and Applications
Review of Human Modeling for Dynamic Simulation
A Human Body in Free-Space: A ‘‘Spacewalk’’
A Simple Weight Lift
Walking
Swimming
Crash Victim Simulation I: Modeling
Crash Victim Simulation II: Vehicle Environment Modeling
Crash Victim Simulation III: Numerical Analysis
Burden Bearing—Waiter/Tray Simulations
Other Applications
Appendix A
Anthropometric Data Tables
Glossary
Bibliography
Index