Industrial Heating

Industrial Heating: Principles, Techniques, Materials, Applications, and Design

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Features

  • Presents the basic principles of heating processes in clear detail for both novice and experienced designers
  • Complements the discussion with solved problems at every step to clarify the link between principles and practical applications
  • Enables reasonable estimation of heat generation, transmission, and absorption suitable for design
  • Clarifies the concepts and units involved in related properties, such as viscosity and emissivity, in useful appendices and uses SI units throughout
  • Discusses waste disposal and the design of incinerators in an easy-to-understand and implement approach
  • Summary

    Industry relies on heating for a wide variety of processes involving a broad range of materials. Each process and material requires heating methods suitable to its properties and the desired outcome. Despite this, the literature lacks a general reference on design techniques for heating, especially for small- and medium-sized applications. Industrial Heating: Principles, Techniques, Materials, Applications, and Design fills this gap, presenting design information for both traditional and modern heating processes and auxiliary techniques.

    The author leverages more than 40 years of experience into this comprehensive, authoritative guide. The book opens with fundamental topics in steady state and transient heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and aerodynamics, emphasizing analytical concepts over mathematical rigor. A discussion of fuels, their combustion, and combustion devices follows, along with waste incineration and its associated problems. The author then examines techniques related to heating, such as vacuum technology, pyrometry, protective atmosphere, and heat exchangers as well as refractory, ceramic, and metallic materials and their advantages and disadvantages. Useful appendices round out the presentation, supplying information on underlying principles such as pressure and thermal diffusivity.

    Replete with illustrations, examples, and solved problems, Industrial Heating provides a much-needed treatment of all aspects of heating systems, reflecting the advances in both process and technology over the past half-century.

    Table of Contents

    Preface
    Abstract
    Author Biography
    Acknowledgements
    INTRODUCTION
    In the Beginning
    Heating System Classification
    Classification of Heating Modes
    Auxiliary Techniques
    FLUID DYNAMICS
    Introduction
    Sources of Gases in Furnaces
    Flow of Gases
    Importance of Fluid Flow in Heating
    Classification of Fluid Flow
    Flow Over Objects
    Flow Separation
    Forced Circulation in Enclosures
    Use of Fans
    Natural Gas Circulation inside Furnaces
    Bernoulli's Theorem of Fluid Flow
    Frictional Losses in Flow
    Local Losses
    Stack Effect
    Practical Flue System
    STEADY STATE HEAT TRANSFER
    Introduction
    Steady State Conduction
    The Shape Factor
    Graphical Method for Wall Heat Transfer and Design
    Convection
    Forced Convection
    Natural Convection (Flat Walls)
    Radiative Heat Transfer
    Radiation Exchange between Bodies
    Radiation Screens
    Radiation Exchange Inside and Outside Furnaces
    Radiation in Absorbing Media
    Radiation Loss from Furnace Openings
    Extended Surfaces
    TRANSIENT CONDUCTION
    Introduction
    Solution by Using Charts
    Heating Bodies of Finite Size
    Transient Heating (Cooling) of a Semiinfinite Solid
    Transient Conduction-Finite Differences Method
    Application of Finite Difference Method to a Multilayered Wall
    Concentrated Heat Sources
    Transient Conduction Graphical Method (Schmidt's Method)
    FUELS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
    Introduction
    Properties of Fuels
    Liquid Fuels
    Gaseous Fuels
    Biogas
    Heating (Calorific) Value
    Calculation of Calorific Value
    Combustion Air Requirements and Products
    Solid Waste and Garbage
    Incomplete Combustion
    Combustion and Pollution
    FUEL BURNING DEVICES
    Introduction
    Combustion of Liquid Fuels
    Classification of Oil Burners
    Burners for Distillate Fuels
    Preheating of Oils
    Kinetics of Combustion of Gases
    Burning Properties of Gases
    Classification of Gas Burners
    Flame Stabilization, Ignition, and Detection
    Atmospheric Gas Burners
    Nozzle Mixing Gas Burners
    Radiant Tubes
    Dual Fuel Burners
    Packaged Burners
    Combustion of Solid Waste and Garbage
    Burner Auxiliaries
    REFRACTORIES
    Introduction
    Classification of Refractories
    Insulating Refractories and Materials
    Manufacture of Refractories
    Refractory Shapes
    Unshaped Refractory Products
    Refractory Fibers
    Properties of Refractories
    Selection of Refractories
    METALS AND ALLOYS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS
    Introduction
    Mechanical Properties of Metals at High Temperature
    Oxidation and Corrosion
    Melting Point and Physical Stability
    Linear Expansion
    Cast Irons
    Steels at High Temperature
    Selection of Metals for High Temperature Application
    ELECTRIC RESISTANCE HEATING
    Introduction
    Indirect Electrical Heating
    Construction and Placement of Heaters
    Design of Metallic Elements
    Nonmetallic Heating Elements
    Design Calculations for Nonmetallic Elements
    Direct Resistance (Conductive) Heating (DRH)
    Stored Energy Heating (SEH)
    Salt Bath Furnaces
    HIGH FREQUENCY HEATING
    Induction heating
    Dielectric Heating
    Microwave Heating
    CONCENTRATED HEAT SOURCES
    Laser
    Electron Beam Heating
    VACUUM ENGINEERING
    Introduction
    Units for Vacuum
    Vacuum Pumps
    Pumping System Design
    Conductance and Pumping Speed
    Baffles and Traps
    Outgassing
    Vacuum Pumping (Pressure-Time Relations)
    Calculation of Pumping Time
    Measurement of Vacuum
    PROTECTIVE ATMOSPHERES
    Introduction
    Manufactured Atmosphere
    Pure Gas Atmospheres
    Heating of Protective Atmosphere Furnace
    Determination of Atmosphere Consumption
    Instrumentation for Protective Atmospheres
    TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
    Introduction
    Thermocouple Pyrometers
    Property Requirements of Thermocouple Materials
    Practical Thermocouples
    Cold Junction Compensation
    Compensating Wires
    Construction of Thermocouples
    Selection of Thermocouples
    Radiation Pyrometry
    Disappearing Filament Pyrometer
    Radiation Pyrometers
    Miscellaneous Temperature-Related Devices
    Temperature Indicators
    Temperature Controllers
    MISCELLANY AND FURTHER
    Introduction
    Some Typical Furnaces
    Incinerators
    Heat Exchangers
    Drying Ovens
    Baking Ovens
    Fans
    Some New Materials
    APPENDICES
    Appendix A: Pressure
    Appendix B: Viscosity
    Appendix C: Thermal Diffusivity
    Appendix D: Humidity
    Appendix E: Error Function
    Appendix F: Properties of Air, Water, Gases
    Appendix G: Emissivity
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    INDEX

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