Marine Biofouling

Marine Biofouling: Colonization Processes and Defenses

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Features

  • Examines the colonization processes that determine the formation of hard substrate communities
  • Explains the causes of micro- and macroorganism concentration on water/hard body interfaces
  • Constructs mathematical models for colonization processes and biofouling control
  • Analyzes the common causes of colonization of man-made structures
  • Reviews the main groups of foulers, from microorganisms to invertebrates to macroalgae
  • Details the biological mechanisms and principles of ecologically safe defenses against biofouling
  • Summary

    Recent instances of bioinvasion, such as the emergence of the zebra mussel in the American Great Lakes, generated a demand among marine biologists and ecologists for groundbreaking new references that detail how organisms colonize hard substrates, and how to prevent damaging biomass concentrations.

    Marine Biofouling: Colonization Processes and Defenses is the English language version of a comprehensive work by eminent Russian scientist Alexander I. Railkin, who details the causes of vast biomass concentrations on submerged hard substrates. He also delivers a quantitative description of colonization processes and provides detailed models for preventing biofouling.

    This volume expounds on many topics rarely discussed in the frame of one book: types of hard substrate communities; comparison of hard and soft substrate communities; harm caused by micro- and macrofoulers; larval taxes and drift; mechanisms of settlement and attachment of microorganisms, invertebrates, ascidians and macroalgae; the impact of currents; protection from epibionts; industrial biofouling protection; successions on hard substrates; and the recovery of disturbed communities or the self-assembly of communities. The text includes much Russian-language research translated for the first time.

    Through a thorough examination of substrate organisms and an exploration of preventive methods, this monograph prepares those concerned with marine biology to help protect the self-purifying organisms that keep marine ecosystems healthy and productive.

    Table of Contents

    COMMUNITIES ON SUBMERGED HARD BODIES
    Organisms and Communities Inhabiting Surfaces of Hard Bodies
    The Phenomenon of Organisms Concentration on Surfaces of Hard Bodies
    Biofouling as a Source of Technical Obstacles

    BIOFOULING AS A PROCESS
    Colonization
    Primary Succession
    Recovery Successions. Self-Assembly of Communities

    TEMPORARY PLANKTONIC EXISTENCE
    Release of Dispersal Forms into Plankton
    Buoyancy and Locomotion of Propagules
    Taxes and Vertical Distribution of Larvae
    The Offshore and Oceanic Drift

    SETTLEMENT OF LARVAE
    The Reasons of Passing over to Periphytonic Existence
    Taxes and Distribution of Larvae During Settlement
    Sensory Systems Participating in the Substrate Selection
    Selectivity During Settlement

    INDUCTION AND STIMULATION OF SETTLEMENT BY A HARD SURFACE
    Types of Induction and Stimulation of Settlement
    Distant Chemical Induction
    Contact Heterospecific Chemical Induction
    Conspecific Chemical Induction and Aggregations
    Stimulation of Settlement, Attachment, and Metamorphosis by Microfouling
    The Influence of Physical Surface Factors on Settlement
    Combined Influence of Surface Factors on Settlement. The Hierarchy of Factors
    Settlement on the Surface Technical Objects

    ATTACHMENT, DEVELOPMENT, AND GROWTH
    Attachment of Microorganisms
    Mechanisms of Attachment of Larvae and Spores of Macroorganisms
    Natural Inductors of Settlement, Attachment, and Metamorphosis
    Universal Mechanisms of Attachment
    Growth and Colonization of the Hard surface

    FUNDAMENTALS OF THE QUANTITATIVE THEORY OF COLONIZATION
    Mathematical Models of Accumulation
    Mathematical Models of Feeding and Growth
    Gradient Distribution of Foulers over Surfaces in a Flow

    GENERAL REGULARITIES OF BIOFOULING
    Causes, Mechanisms, and Limits of Biofouling Concentration on Hard Surfaces
    Evolution of Hard-Substrate Communities

    PROTECTION OF MAN-MADE STRUCTURES AGAINST BIOFOULING
    Physical Protection
    Commercial Chemobiocidal Protection
    Ecological Consequences of Toxicant Application

    ECOLOGICALLY SAFE PROTECTION FROM BIOFOULING
    Defense Against Epibionts
    Natural and Industrial Anticolonization Protection
    Repellent Protection
    Antiadhesive Protection
    Biocidal Protection
    Prospects of Developing Ecologically Safe Anticolonization Protection

    THE GENERAL MODEL OF PROTECTION AGAINST BIOFOULING

    Conclusion
    References
    Index

    Editorial Reviews

    "The organization of this book breaks down this complex problem into its fundamental biological and ecological components. … This is an important reference resource for specialists of all kinds."
    - Southeastern Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2004

    "The English translation of this monograph makes accessible for the first time a great number of Russian-language works on an important topic of marine ecology. …the writing is scientific and technical, the information is of great value both to biologists and to those practicing marine trades."
    -Northeastern Naturalist, Issue 12/4, 2005