Surface and Underground Excavations, 2nd Edition

Surface and Underground Excavations, 2nd Edition: Methods, Techniques and Equipment

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Features

  • New, extended and updated edition with a more educational character than the original.
  • Questions at the end of each chapter plus hints for solving.
  • Concise and comprehensive coverage per subject, with concluding and ‘way forward’ remarks at the end of each chapter.        
  • Includes ‘Latest Trends and Best Practices’ wherever feasible.
  • Suited for senior undergraduate and graduate student courses.

Summary

Surface and Underground Excavations – Methods, Techniques and Equipment (2nd edition) covers the latest technologies and developments in the excavation arena at any locale: surface or underground. In the first few chapters, unit operations are discussed and subsequently, excavation techniques are described for various operations: tunnelling, drifting, raising, sinking, stoping, quarrying, surface mining, liquidation and mass blasting as well as construction of large subsurface excavations such as caverns and underground chambers. The design, planning and development of excavations are treated in a separate chapter. Especially featured are methodologies to select stoping methods through incremental analysis.

Furthermore, this edition encompasses comprehensive sections on mining at ‘ultra depths’, mining difficult deposits using non-conventional technologies, mineral inventory evaluation (ore – reserves estimation) and mine closure. Concerns over Occupational Health and Safety (OHS), environment and loss prevention, and sustainable development are also addressed in advocating a solution to succeed within a scenario of global competition and recession.

This expanded second edition has been wholly revised, brought fully up-to-date and includes (wherever feasible) the latest trends and best practices, case studies, global surveys and toolkits as well as questions at the end of each chapter. This volume will now be even more appealing to students in earth sciences, geology, and in civil, mining and construction engineering, to practicing engineers and professionals in these disciplines as well as to all with a general or professional interest in surface and underground excavations.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Excavations and their classification
1.2 Surface excavations
1.3 Underground excavations
1.4 Importance of minerals and brief history of their recovery
1.5 Current status of mineral industry
1.6 Excavation technologies/systems – development & growth
1.7 Unique features of mineral industry
1.7.1 Different phases of mine life
1.8 Brief history of civil work excavations including tunneling
1.9 The current scenario
1.9.1 Population growth
1.9.2 Lifestyle
1.9.3 Globalization
1.9.4 Buyer’s market
1.9.5 Technological developments and renovations
1.9.6 Information technology (IT) and its impacts
1.10 Tomorrow’s mine & civil excavations
1.11 The way forward
Questions
References

2 Rocks, minerals and mineral inventory evaluation
2.1 Formation process and classification
2.1.1 Igneous rocks
2.1.2 Sedimentary rocks
2.1.3 Metamorphic rocks
2.2 Rock cycle & type of deposits
2.3 Texture, grain size and shape
2.3.1 Grain sizes and shapes
2.3.2 Durability, plasticity and swelling potential of rocks
2.4 The concepts of mineral resources and reserves; mineral inventory, cutoff grade and ores
2.4.1 Some important ores – chemical & mineralogical composition
2.5 Geological structures
2.5.1 Geometry of a deposit
2.5.2 Forms of deposits
2.5.3 Structural features of rock mass
2.6 Physical and mechanical characteristics of ores and rocks
2.6.1 Rocks as rock mechanics
2.6.2 Rock composition
2.6.3 Rock strength
2.7 Some other properties/characteristics
2.7.1 Hardness of minerals
2.7.2 Rock breakability
2.8 Related terms – rock and mineral deposits
2.9 Mineral inventory evaluation
2.9.1 Introduction
2.9.2 Grade computation from borehole data
2.9.3 Mineral inventory modelling/estimation techniques
2.9.3.1 Method of polygons
2.9.3.2 Triangle or triangular prism method
2.9.3.3 Cross-sectional method
2.9.3.4 Inverse Square Distance Weighting (IDW) method
2.9.3.5 Classical statistics
2.9.3.6 Geostatistics
2.9.3.7 Non-linear estimation techniques in geostatistics
2.9.4 Important considerations for evaluation of the mineral inventory
2.9.4.1 Homogeneity and mode of origin
2.9.4.2 Geological and mineralogical boundaries
2.9.5 Computation of the mineral inventory
2.9.5.1 Logical steps followed
2.9.5.2 Graphical presentation of data
2.9.5.3 Statistical analysis and cumulative probability distribution
2.9.5.4 Structural analysis – the semi-variogram
2.9.5.5 Trend surface analysis
2.9.5.6 Checking the variogram model
2.9.5.7 Block kriging
2.9.5.8 Block dimensions
2.9.5.9 Kriging procedure
2.9.6 Graphical presentation of the kriged results
2.9.7 Grade-tonnage calculation and plotting the curves
2.9.8 Selection of a suitable mining/stoping method
2.10 Resources classification by UNECE
2.11 The way forward
Questions
References

3 Prospecting, exploration & site investigations
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Prospecting and exploration
3.2.1 Finding signs of the mineral in the locality or general indications
3.2.1.1 Geological studies
3.2.1.2 Geo-chemical studies
3.2.2 Finding the deposit or preliminary proving
3.2.2.1 Geophysical methods/studies/surveys
3.2.2.2 Putting exploratory headings
3.2.3 Exploring the deposits or detailed proving – prospecting drilling
3.3 Phases of prospecting and exploration program
3.4 Site investigations for civil constructions, or any excavation project including tunnels and caverns
3.5 Rocks and ground characterization
3.5.1 Rock strength classification
3.5.2 Rock mass classifications
3.6 Rock quality designation (RQD)
3.6.1 Q (Rock mass quality) system
3.6.2 Geomechanics classification (RMR system)
3.6.3 Rock structure rating (RSR)
3.7 Geological and geotechnical factors
3.8 The way forward
Questions
References

4 Drilling
4.1 Introduction – unit operations
4.2 Primary rock breaking
4.3 Drilling
4.4 Operating components of the drilling system
4.5 Mechanics of rock penetration
4.5.1 Top-hammer drilling
4.5.2 Down-the-hole (DTH) drilling
4.5.3 Rotary drilling
4.5.4 Augur drill
4.5.5 Rotary abrasive drilling
4.6 Rock drill classification
4.6.1 Tunneling/development drill jumbos
4.6.2 Shaft jumbos
4.6.3 Ring drilling jumbos
4.6.4 Fan drilling jumbos
4.6.5 Wagon drill jumbos
4.6.6 DTH drill jumbos
4.6.7 Roof bolting jumbos
4.7 Motive power of rock drills
4.7.1 Electric drills
4.7.2 Pneumatic drills
4.7.3 Hydraulic drills
4.8 Drilling accessories
4.8.1 Extension drill steels
4.8.2 Bits
4.8.3 Impact of rock-type on drilling performance
4.9 Selection of drill
4.10 Summary – rocks drill applications
4.11 Drilling postures
4.12 The way forward
Questions
References

5 Explosives and blasting
5.1 Introduction – explosives
5.2 Detonation and deflagration
5.3 Common ingredients of explosives
5.4 Classification of explosives
5.4.1 Primary or initiating explosives
5.4.2 Secondary explosives
5.4.3 Pyrotechnic explosives
5.4.4 Low explosives
5.4.5 Commercial explosives – high explosives
5.4.5.1 Gelatin explosives
5.4.5.1.1 Dynamites (straight dynamite, ammonia dynamite)
5.4.5.1.2 Blasting gelatin
5.4.5.1.3 Semi gelatin
5.4.5.2 Wet blasting agents
5.4.5.2.1 Slurry explosives
5.4.5.2.2 Emulsions
5.4.5.2.3 Heavy ANFO
5.4.5.3 Dry blasting agents
5.4.5.3.1 Explosive ANFO
5.4.5.3.2 ANFO mixing
5.4.5.3.3 ANFO loading
5.4.5.4 Pneumatic loaders and principles of loading
5.4.5.4.1 Pressure type loaders
5.4.5.4.2 Ejector type loader
5.4.5.4.3 Combine type (combining pressure and ejecting features)
5.4.5.5 Safety aspects
5.4.5.6 Static hazards associated with ANFO loading
5.4.5.7 Special types of explosives
5.4.5.7.1 Permitted explosives
5.4.5.7.2 Seismic explosives
5.4.5.7.3 Overbreak control explosives
5.4.6 Military explosives
5.5 Blasting properties of explosives
5.5.1 Strength
5.5.2 Detonation velocity
5.5.3 Density
5.5.4 Water resistance
5.5.5 Fume characteristics, or class, or medical aspects
5.5.6 Oxygen balance
5.5.7 Completion of reaction
5.5.8 Detonation pressure
5.5.9 Borehole pressure and critical diameter
5.5.10 Sensitivity
5.5.11 Safety in handling & storage qualities
5.5.12 Explosive cost
5.6 Explosive initiating devices/systems
5.6.1 Detonator system
5.6.1.1 Detonators
5.6.1.2 Instantaneous detonators
5.6.1.2.1 Plain detonator
5.6.1.2.2 Instantaneous electric detonators
5.6.1.3 Delay detonators
5.6.1.3.1 Electric delay detonators
5.6.1.3.2 Electronic delay detonators
5.6.1.3.3 Non-electric delay detonators: detonating relays (ms connectors)
5.6.1.3.4 Primadet and anodet non-electric delay blasting systems
5.6.1.3.5 The nonel system
5.6.1.3.6 Combine primadet-nonel system
5.6.1.3.7 The hercudet blasting cap system
5.6.1.3.8 Advantages of short delay blasting
5.6.2 Fuse/cord system
5.6.2.1 Safety fuse
5.6.2.2 Detonating fuse/cord (DC)
5.6.2.3 Igniter cords (IC)
5.7 Explosive charging techniques
5.7.1 Water gel (slurry loader)
5.8 Blasting accessories
5.8.1 Exploders
5.8.2 Circuit testers
5.8.3 Other blasting tools
5.9 Firing systems – classification
5.9.1 While firing with a safety fuse
5.9.2 Firing with electric detonators
5.9.3 Non-electric systems
5.10 Ground blasting techniques
5.10.1 Control/contour blasting
5.10.1.1 Pre-splitting
5.10.1.2 Cushion blasting
5.10.1.3 Smooth blasting & buffer blasting
5.10.1.4 Line drilling
5.11 Secondary breaking
5.11.1 Secondary rock breaking methods
5.11.1.1 With the aid of explosives
5.11.1.1.1 Plaster shooting
5.11.1.1.2 Pop shooting
5.11.1.1.3 Releasing jammed muck from the draw points
5.11.2Without aid of explosives
5.11.2.1 Mechanical rock breaking
5.11.2.1.1 Manual breaking
5.11.2.1.2 Mechanical rock breakers
5.11.2.1.3 Hydraulic rock breakers
5.11.2.1.4 Teledyne rock breaker
5.11.2.2 Electrical rock breaking
5.11.2.2.1 Rock breaking by the use of high frequency current
5.11.2.3 Hydraulic boulder splitter
5.12 Use, handling, transportation and storage of explosives
5.12.1 Magazine
5.13 Explosive selection
5.14 Blasting theory
5.14.1 Adverse impacts of explosives
5.14.1.1 Ground/land vibrations
5.14.1.2 Air blast and noise
5.14.1.3 Rock throw
5.15 Drilling and blasting performance
5.15.1 Percentages pull
5.15.2 Over-break factor
5.15.3 Degree of fragmentation
5.15.4 Overall cost
5.16 Recent trends in explosives and blasting technology
5.17 Concluding remarks
Questions
References

6 Mucking, casting and excavation
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Muck characteristics
6.3 Classification
6.4 Underground mucking units
6.4.1 Overshot loaders
6.4.2 Autoloaders – hopper loaders and LHDs
6.4.2.1 Autoloaders – mucking and delivering
6.4.2.2 Mucking and transporting – load haul and dump units (LHDs)
6.4.2.2.1 Constructional details
6.4.2.2.2 Special provisions
6.4.2.2.3 Buckets of LHD and other dimensions
6.4.2.2.4 LHD tyres
6.4.2.2.5 Distance, gradient and speed
6.4.2.2.6 Ventilation
6.4.2.2.7 Latest developments
6.4.2.3 Desirable features
6.4.2.3.1 Perfect layout
6.4.2.3.2 Suitable drainage and road maintenance
6.4.2.3.3 Well-fragmented muck
6.4.2.3.4 Maintenance
6.4.2.3.5 Trained personnel
6.4.2.4 Advantages
6.4.2.5 Limitations
6.4.2.6 Manufacturers
6.5 Arm loaders
6.5.1 Gathering-arm-loader (GAL)
6.5.2 Arm loaders for sinking operations
6.5.3 Riddle mucker
6.5.4 Cryderman mucker
6.5.5 Cactus-grab muckers
6.5.6 Backhoe mucker
6.6 Scrapers
6.7 Mucking in tunnels
6.7.1 Dipper and hydraulic shovels
6.7.2 Mucking in TBM driven tunnels
6.8 Surface – excavation, loading and casting units
6.9 Wheel loaders – front end loaders
6.10 Backhoe
6.11 Hydraulic excavators
6.12 Shovel
6.13 Dragline
6.13.1 Multi bucket excavators
6.14 Bucket chain excavator (BCE)
6.15 Bucket wheel excavator (BWE)
6.16 Calculations for selection of shovel/excavator
6.17 Total cost calculations
6.18 Governing factors for the selection of mucking equipment
6.19 The way forward
Questions
References

7 Transportation – haulage and hoisting
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Haulage system
7.2.1 Rail or track mounted – rope haulage
7.2.1.1 Rope haulage calculations
7.2.1.1.1 Direct rope haulage system
7.2.1.1.2 Endless rope haulage system
7.2.1.2 Scope and applications of rope haulage
7.2.2 Locomotive haulage
7.2.2.1 Electric locomotives
7.2.2.2 Battery locomotives
7.2.2.3 Combination locomotives
7.2.2.4 Diesel locomotives
7.2.2.5 Compressed air locomotives
7.2.2.6 Other fittings
7.2.2.7 Locomotive calculations
7.3 Trackless or tyred haulage system
7.3.1 Automobiles
7.3.2 LHD
7.3.3 Shuttle car
7.3.4 Underground trucks
7.3.4.1 Trackless or tyred haulage system
7.4 Conveyor system
7.4.1 Belt conveyors
7.4.1.1 Conveyor calculations
7.4.2 Cable belt conveyors
7.4.3 Scraper chain conveyors
7.5 Hoisting or winding system
7.5.1 Head-frame or head-gear
7.5.2 Shaft conveyances
7.5.3 Rope equipment
7.5.4 Classification of hoisting system
7.5.4.1 Multi-rope friction winding system
7.5.5 Hoisting cycle
7.5.6 Calculations of suspended load during hoisting
7.5.7 Use of safety devices with a hoisting system
7.6 Aerial ropeway
7.6.1 Aerial ropeway calculations
7.7 Ropes
7.7.1 Rope calculations
7.8 Track and mine car
7.8.1 Track
7.8.2 Mine cars
7.9 The way forward
Questions
References

8 Supports
8.1 Introduction – necessity of supports
8.2 Classification of supports
8.3 Self support by in-place (in-situ) rock
8.3.1 Support by the use of natural pillars
8.3.2 Use of artificial supports
8.3.2.1 Brick and stone masonry
8.3.2.2 Wooden (timber) supports
8.3.2.2.1 Calculations with regard to wooden supports
8.3.2.3 Steel supports
8.3.2.3.1 Steel props, powered and shield supports
8.3.2.3.2 Rock bolting
8.3.2.4 Concrete supports
8.3.2.5 Support by filling
8.4 Selection of support
8.4.1 Measures to preserve the stability of the stoped out workings or to minimize problems of ground stability
8.5 Effect of ore extraction upon displacement of country rock and surface
8.6 The way forward
Questions
References

9 Drives and tunnels (conventional methods)
9.1 Introduction – function of drives and tunnels
9.2 Drivage techniques (for drives and tunnels)
9.3 Drivage techniques with the aid of explosives
9.3.1 Pattern of holes
9.3.1.1 Mechanized-cut kerf
9.3.1.2 Blasting off the solid
9.3.1.2.1 Parallel hole cuts
9.3.1.2.2 Verification of pattern of holes
9.3.2 Charging and blasting the rounds
9.3.2.1 Placement of primer
9.3.2.2 Stemming
9.3.2.3 Depth of round/hole
9.3.2.4 Charge density in cut-holes and rest of the face area
9.3.3 Smooth blasting
9.3.3.1 Charging and blasting procedure
9.3.3.2 Use of ANFO in drives and tunnels
9.4 Muck disposal and handling (mucking and transportation)
9.5 Ventilation
9.5.1 Mine opening ventilation
9.5.1.1 Using general air flow
9.5.1.2 Using auxiliary fans: forcing, exhaust or contra rotating
9.5.2 Ventilation during civil tunneling
9.6 Working cycle (including auxiliary operations)
9.7 Driving large sized drives/tunnels in tough rocks
9.7.1 Full-face driving/tunneling
9.7.2 Pilot heading technique
9.7.3 Heading and bench method
9.8 Conventional tunneling methods: tunneling through the soft ground and soft rocks
9.9 Supports for tunnels and mine openings
9.9.1 Classification
9.9.2 Selection of supports
9.10 Driving without aid of explosives
9.11 Pre-cursor or prior to driving civil tunnels
9.11.1 Site investigations
9.11.2 Location of tunnels
9.11.3 Rocks and ground characterization
9.11.4 Size, shape, length and orientation (route) of tunnels
9.11.5 Preparatory work required
9.12 Past, present and future of tunneling technology
9.13 Over-break and scaling – some innovations
9.14 Longer rounds – some trials
9.15 The way forward
Questions
References

10 Tunneling by roadheaders and impact hammers
10.1 Tunneling by boom-mounted roadheaders
10.2 Classification boom-mounted roadheaders
10.2.1 Ripper (transverse) type roadheaders – (Cutter heads with rotation perpendicular to the boom axis)
10.2.1.1 Bar type
10.2.1.2 Disc type
10.3 Milling or longitudinal (auger) roadheaders
10.3.1 Borer type roadheaders
10.4 Classification based on weight
10.5 Advantages of roadheaders
10.6 Important developments
10.7 Procedure of driving by the heading machines
10.8 Auxiliary operations
10.8.1 Ground support
10.9 Hydraulic impact hammer tunneling
10.10 Excavation procedure and cycle of operations
10.10.1 Hammer’s working cycle
10.11 Merit and limitations
10.12 Partial face rotary rock tunneling machines
10.13 Excavators
10.13.1 Excavators mounted within shield
10.13.1.1 Excavator buckets
10.14 Excavator with multiple tool miner (MTM) attachments
10.14.1 Excavator mounted within a shield
10.14.2 Excavator-mounted cutter booms (Partial face machines for NATM)
10.15 The way forward
Questions
References

11 Full-face tunnel borers (TBMs) & special methods
11.1 Introduction
11.1.1 Improved understanding
11.2 Tunneling methods and procedures
11.3 Full-face tunneling machines
11.3.1 Full-face tunnel borers (mechanical) TBM – open and shielded
11.3.2 Mechanical excavation of the full cross-section with open type machines
11.3.2.1 Open main beam machines
11.3.2.2 Single shield
11.3.2.3 Double shield
11.3.2.4 Enlarging TBM
11.4 Mini tunnel borers
11.5 Boring system
11.6 Rock cutting tools and their types
11.6.1 Cutting head configuration
11.7 TBM performance
11.7.1 Economical aspects
11.8 Size of unit and its overall length including its trailing gear
11.8.1 Advantages
11.8.2 Disadvantages
11.9 Backup system/activities
11.9.1 Muck disposal
11.9.2 Single track
11.9.3 Double track
11.9.4 Continuous conveyor system
11.9.5 Other back-ups include
11.10 TBMs for soft ground/formations
11.10.1 Full-face shield with picks
11.10.2 Compressed air shields
11.10.3 Slurry shield
11.10.4 Earth pressure balance
11.10.4.1 Segments
11.10.4.2 Back filling
11.10.4.3 Auxiliary construction measures
11.10.5 Developments
11.11 Phases of tunneling project
11.11.1 Tunnel portal
11.11.2 Phases of a TBM project
11.12 Future technology
11.12.1 Hard rock TBMs
11.12.2 Soft ground machines
11.13 New Austrian tunneling method (NATM)
11.13.1 NATM design philosophy and typical features
11.13.2 Ground categories and tunneling procedures
11.13.2.1 Excavation sequence
11.13.3 Semi-mechanized methods
11.14 Tunneling through abnormal or difficult ground using special methods
11.14.1 Ground treatment
11.14.1.1 Reinforcement
11.14.1.2 Treatment that tackles the problems arising due to the presence of water
11.14.1.3 Lowering water table/ground water
11.14.1.4 Use of compressed air to hold back water
11.14.1.5 Grouting
11.14.1.6 Freezing
11.15 Cut and cover method of tunneling
11.16 Submerged tubes/tunnels
11.17 The way forward
Questions
References

12 Planning
12.1 Economic studies
12.1.1 Phases or stages in economic studies
12.1.1.1 Preliminary studies or valuation
12.1.1.2 Intermediate economic study or pre-feasibility study
12.1.1.3 Feasibility study
12.1.1.3.1 Information on deposit
12.1.1.3.2 Information on general project economics
12.1.1.3.3 Mining method selection
12.1.1.3.4 Processing methods
12.1.1.3.5 Ecology
12.1.1.3.6 Capital and operating costs estimates
12.1.1.3.7 Project cost & rates of return
12.1.1.3.8 Comments
12.1.2 Conceptual mine planning and detailed project reports
12.1.2.1 Conceptual studies/models
12.1.2.2 Engineering studies
12.1.2.3 Models and detailed design
12.2 Mine design elements
12.2.1 Mineral resources and reserves
12.2.2 Cutoff grade
12.2.2.1 Mining & process plant input-output calculations (for a copper mining complex)
12.2.2.2 Cutoff grade calculations
12.2.3 Interrelationship amongst the mine design elements
12.2.4 Mine life
12.2.4.1 Phases or stages during mine life
12.3 Dividing property for the purpose of underground mining
12.3.1 Panel system
12.3.2 Level system
12.3.3 Level interval
12.4 Mine planning duration
12.5 Mine development – introduction
12.6 Access to deposit or means of mine access
12.7 System – opening up a deposit
12.7.1 Opening deposit in parts
12.7.2 Opening up the whole deposit
12.8 Positioning and developing the main haulage levels
12.8.1 Selecting development in ore or rock (country rock)
12.8.2 Vertical development in the form of raises
12.8.3 Connecting main levels by ramps/declines/slopes
12.8.4 Determination of optimal load concentration point
12.8.4.1 Analytical method
12.8.4.2 Graphical method: funicular diagram
12.9 Size and shape of mine openings and tunnels
12.10 Pit top layouts
12.11 Pit bottom layouts
12.11.1 Types of pit bottom layouts
12.12 Structures concerning pit bottom layouts
12.13 The way forward
Questions
References

13 Excavations in upward direction – raising
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Raise applications in civil and construction industries
13.3 Classification – types of raises for mines
13.4 Raise driving techniques
13.5 Conventional raising method: open raising
13.6 Conventional raising method: raising by compartment
13.7 Raising by the use of mechanical climbers: Jora hoist
13.8 Raising by mechanical climbers: Alimak raise climber
13.8.1 Preparatory work and fittings
13.8.2 Ignition and telephone systems
13.8.3 Cycle of operations
13.8.4 Performance
13.8.5 Design variants
13.8.6 Air-driven unit
13.8.7 Electrically driven unit
13.8.8 Diesel-hydraulic unit
13.9 Blasthole raising method: long-hole raising
13.9.1 Marking the raise
13.9.2 Equipment installation
13.9.3 Drilling
13.9.4 Raise correlation
13.9.5 Blowing and plugging the holes
13.9.6 Charging and blasting
13.9.7 Limitations
13.9.8 Advantages
13.10 Blasthole raising method: drop raising
13.11 Raising by the application of raise borers
13.12 Raise boring in a package – BorPak
13.13 Ore pass/waste rock pass
13.13.1 Size and shape
13.13.2 Ore pass lining
13.13.3 Design consideration of rock pass/ore pass
13.14 The way forward
Questions
References

14 Shaft sinking
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Location
14.3 Preparatory work required
14.4 Sinking appliances, equipment and services
14.5 Sinking methods and procedure
14.6 Reaching up to the rock head
14.6.1 Pre-sink
14.7 Sinking through the rock
14.7.1 Drilling
14.7.2 Blasting
14.7.3 Lashing and mucking
14.7.4 Hoisting
14.7.5 Support or shaft lining
14.7.6 Auxiliary operations
14.7.6.1 Dewatering
14.7.6.2 Ventilation
14.7.6.3 Illumination
14.7.6.4 Shaft centering
14.7.6.5 Station construction and initial development
14.8 Special methods of shaft sinking
14.9 Piling system
14.10 Caisson method
14.10.1 Sinking drum process
14.10.2 Forced drop-shaft method
14.10.3 Pneumatic caisson method
14.11 Special methods by temporary or permanent isolation of water
14.11.1 Cementation
14.11.1.1 Boring/Drilling
14.11.1.2 Cementation
14.11.1.3 Sinking and walling
14.12 The freezing process
14.12.1 Drilling and lining of boreholes
14.12.2 Formation and maintenance of the ice column
14.12.3 Actual sinking operations
14.12.4 Thawing of ice wall
14.12.5 Freezing – shafts
14.12.6 Ground freezing practices in Germany
14.13 Shaft drilling and boring
14.13.1 Shaft drilling
14.13.2 Shaft boring
14.14 Safety in sinking shafts
14.14.1 Field tests and measurements
14.15 The way forward
Questions
References

15 Large sub-surface excavations
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Caverns
15.2.1 Constructional details – important aspects
15.2.1.1 Construction procedure
15.3 Powerhouse caverns
15.4 Oil storage caverns
15.5 Repository
15.6 Salt cavern storage
15.7 Aquifer storage
15.8 Exhibition hall caverns
15.9 Underground chambers in mines
15.10 Equipment and services selection
15.11 The way forward
Questions
References

16 Underground mining/stoping methods & mine closure
16.1 Introduction
16.1.1 Factors governing choice of a mining method
16.1.1.1 Shape and size of the deposit
16.1.1.2 Thickness of deposit
16.1.1.3 Dip of the deposit
16.1.1.4 Physical and mechanical characteristics of the ore and the enclosing rocks
16.1.1.5 Presence of geological disturbances and influence of the direction of cleats or partings
16.1.1.6 Degree of mechanization and output required
16.1.1.7 Ore grade and its distribution, and value of the product
16.1.1.8 Depth of the deposit
16.1.1.9 Presence of water
16.1.1.10 Presence of gases
16.1.1.11 Ore & country rock susceptibility to caking and oxidation
16.1.2 Desirable features of selecting a stoping method
16.1.3 Classification – stoping methods
16.2 Open stoping methods
16.2.1 Open stoping method – room & pillar stoping
16.2.1.1 Introduction
16.2.1.2 Stope preparation
16.2.1.3 Unit operations
16.2.1.4 Stoping operations
16.2.1.5 Bord and pillar
16.2.1.6 Block system
16.2.1.7 Stope and pillar
16.2.1.7.1 Advantages
16.2.1.7.2 Limitations
16.2.2 Open stoping method – shrinkage stoping
16.2.2.1 Introduction
16.2.2.2 Stope preparation
16.2.2.3 Unit operations
16.2.2.4 Stoping operations
16.2.2.5 Layouts
16.2.2.5.1 Winning the pillars
16.2.2.5.2 Advantages
16.2.2.5.3 Limitations
16.2.3 Open stoping method – sublevel stoping
16.2.3.1 Introduction
16.2.3.2 Sublevel stoping with benching
16.2.3.3 Blasthole stoping
16.2.3.4 Longitudinal sublevel stoping
16.2.3.5 Transverse sublevel stoping
16.2.3.6 Blasthole drilling
16.2.4 Large blasthole stoping
16.2.4.1 Stope preparation (general procedure)
16.2.4.2 VCR method
16.2.4.3 Unit operations
16.2.4.4 Layouts
16.2.4.4.1 Advantages
16.2.4.4.2 Limitations
16.2.4.4.3 Winning the pillars
16.3 Supported stoping methods
16.3.1 Supported stoping method – stull stoping
16.3.1.1 Introduction
16.3.1.2 Unit operations
16.3.1.3 Auxiliary operations
16.3.1.4 Stope preparation
16.3.1.5 Stoping
16.3.1.6 Layouts
16.3.1.6.1 Variants
16.3.1.6.2 Advantages
16.3.1.6.3 Limitations
16.3.2 Supported stoping method: cut & fill stoping
16.3.2.1 Introduction
16.3.2.2 Stope preparation
16.3.2.3 Stoping
16.3.2.4 Unit operations
16.3.2.5 Auxiliary operations
16.3.2.5.1 Advantages
16.3.2.5.2 Limitations
16.3.2.5.3 Variants
16.3.2.6 Cut and fill with flat back
16.3.2.7 Cut and fill with inclined slicing
16.3.2.8 Post and pillar cut and fill stoping
16.3.2.9 Stope drive or undercut and fill stoping
16.3.2.9.1 Filling methods during deep mining
16.3.2.9.2 Top slicing (An undercut-and-fill method)
16.3.2.9.3 Filling materials
16.3.3 Supported stoping method – square set stoping
16.3.3.1 Introduction
16.3.3.2 Stope preparation
16.3.3.3 Stoping
16.3.3.4 Unit operations
16.3.3.5 Auxiliary operations
16.3.3.6 Layouts
16.3.3.6.1 Advantages
16.3.3.6.2 Limitations
16.4 Caving methods
16.4.1 Caving method – longwall mining
16.4.1.1 Introduction
16.4.1.2 Unit operations
16.4.1.3 While mining coal
16.4.1.4 Stope preparation
16.4.1.5 Stoping operations
16.4.1.6 Layouts
16.4.1.6.1 Advantages
16.4.1.6.2 Limitations
16.4.1.7 Mining at ultra depths
16.4.2 Caving method – sublevel caving
16.4.2.1 Introduction
16.4.2.2 Unit operations
16.4.2.2.1 Variants
16.4.2.3 Stope preparation (transverse sublevel caving)
16.4.2.4 Stope preparation (sublevel caving – longitudinal)
16.4.2.5 Layouts
16.4.2.5.1 Advantages
16.4.2.5.2 Limitations
16.4.3 Caving method – block caving
16.4.3.1 Introduction
16.4.3.2 Unit operations
16.4.3.2.1 Variants
16.4.3.3 Methods of draw
16.4.3.4 Stope preparation
16.4.3.5 Layouts
16.4.3.5.1 Advantages
16.4.3.5.2 Limitations
16.5 Common aspects
16.5.1 Stope design
16.5.1.1 Model parameters
16.5.1.2 Design parameters
16.5.2 Application of computers in stope design and economic analysis
16.5.3 Proposed methodology for selection of a stoping method for the base metal deposits with a case study
16.6 Mine liquidation
16.6.1 Liquidation of the stopes of different types
16.6.2 Planning liquidation
16.6.3 Liquidation techniques
16.6.4 Pillar types & methods of their extraction
16.6.4.1 Pillar extraction methods
16.6.4.2 Planning a heavy-blast for liquidation purpose
16.6.5 Case studies
16.6.5.1 Heavy blasting at a copper mine
16.6.5.2 Remnant pillars’ blast at lead-zinc mine
16.6.5.2.1 Blast planning
16.6.5.2.2 Results of the blast
16.7 Planning for mine closure
16.7.1 Introduction
16.7.2 Phases – mine closure
16.7.3 The integrated mine closure planning guidelines (toolkit)
16.7.3.1 Salient features (parameters to be considered) for closure planning
16.7.3.2 Guidelines/toolkit details
16.7.3.3 Glossary
16.8 The way forward
Questions
References

17 Surface excavations
17.1 Introduction – surface mining methods
17.2 Open pit mining
17.2.1 Open pit elements
17.2.1.1 Bench angle or slope
17.2.2 Overall pit slope angle
17.2.2.1 Computation of overall pit slope angle
17.2.3 Stripping ratio
17.2.4 Overall pit profile
17.2.4.1 Coning concept for open pit design
17.2.5 Stripping sequence
17.3 Haul roads
17.4 Ramp and its gradient
17.5 Open cast mining/strip mining
17.5.1 Introduction
17.5.2 Design aspects
17.5.3 Operational details – surface mines
17.5.3.1 Planning
17.5.3.2 Site preparation
17.5.3.3 Opening up the deposit
17.5.4 Development
17.5.4.1 Waste rock dumps
17.5.5 Bench blasting design patterns
17.5.5.1 Linear formulas
17.5.5.2 Power formulas derived by statistical analysis
17.5.5.3 Formulas related to energy transfer in rock blasting, burden and blasthole diameter
17.5.5.4 Tatiya and Adel’s formula to determine burden with respect to blasthole diameter
17.5.5.5 Powder factor method
17.5.6 Drilling and blasting operations
17.5.7 Cast blasting
17.5.8 Muck handling
17.5.9 Selection of excavator and transportation units
17.5.10 Calculations for selection of shovel/excavator
17.5.10.1 Time factor
17.5.10.2 Operational factor (Of)
17.5.10.3 Bucket fill factor (Bf)
17.5.11 Theoretical output from an excavator/hr
17.5.12 Output from a continuous flow unit
17.5.13 Transportation schemes
17.5.14 In-pit crushing and conveying
17.5.15 Dumping site
17.5.16 Integrated or matching equipment complex
17.5.16.1 Global Positioning System (GPS)
17.5.17 Quarrying of dimension stones
17.6 Quarrying of dimension stones
17.6.1 Drilling
17.6.2 Line drilling
17.6.3 Discontinuous or spaced drilling
17.6.4 Drilling and blasting
17.6.4.1 Blast results at Vanga granite quarry in southern Sweden
17.6.5 Wire cutter – helicoid and diamond
17.6.6 Cutter saw and rock channellers (impact cutting machines)
17.6.6.1 Merits
17.6.6.2 Disadvantages
17.7 The diamond belt saw
17.7.1 Water jet technology
17.7.2 Thermal cutting
17.7.3 Underground quarrying
17.8 Earth movers
17.9 The way forward
Questions
References

18 Hazards, occupational health and safety (OHS), environment and loss prevention
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Potential excavation hazards
18.2.1 Hazards (risks) analysis and management
18.3 Safety and accidents
18.3.1 Terminology
18.3.2 Safety strategies
18.3.3 Safety elements
18.3.3.1 People/mine workers
18.3.3.2 The systems
18.3.3.3 The working environment (conditions)
18.3.4 Accidents
18.3.4.1 Accidents/incident analysis & calculations
18.3.4.2 Common accident areas/heads
18.3.4.3 Accident costs
18.3.4.4 Remedial measures
18.3.4.5 Measures/preparedness
18.3.4.6 Hazards analysis methods
18.4 Occupational health and surveillance
18.4.1 Industrial hygiene
18.4.1.1 Aqueous effluents – permissible quality & efficient discharge
18.4.1.2 House keeping
18.4.1.3 The 5S concept
18.4.2 Working conditions
18.4.3 Ergonomics
18.4.3.1 Introduction
18.4.3.2 Impacts of poor ergonomics
18.4.4 Occupational health surveillance
18.4.4.1 Organizational culture and workplace stresses
18.4.4.2 ‘Presenteeism’ – lost performance at work
18.4.4.3 Periodic health surveillance: based on exposure-risk
18.4.4.4 Notified diseases and preventive measures
18.5 Environment degradation and mitigation measures
18.5.1 Balance system/equation
18.5.2 Environmental degradation
18.5.3 Environmental management
18.5.4 Environmental system
18.6 Loss prevention
18.6.1 Classification – losses
18.6.2 Abnormalities
18.6.3 5W-2H analysis
18.6.4 Wastage
18.6.5 Case-study illustrating computation of financial losses
18.6.6 Use of Information Technology (IT) in integrating processes and information
18.7 The way forward
Questions
References

19 Sustainable Development
19.1 Sustainable Development (SD) in mining
19.1.1 Sustainable development
19.1.2 Global issues & backlog on sustainable development
19.1.3 Sustainable development in mining
19.2 Stakeholders and sustainable development
19.2.1 Principles/guidelines for SD by ICMM
19.2.2 Status of SD in mining, based on stakeholders’ views though a survey by globalscan
19.3 Scenarios influencing mining industry
19.3.1 Population growth and resulting impacts/implications
19.3.2 Use of minerals by world’s citizens
19.3.3 Mineral consumption trends
19.3.4 Status of quality, quantity, type of mineral and resources depletion
19.3.5 Mineral consumption prediction
19.3.6 Mining industry’s inherent problems and challenges
19.3.7 Global risk ranking and competitiveness in the mining sector
19.4 Is mining industry equipped to meet the challenges?
19.4.1 Technological developments in mining
19.4.2 Initiatives already taken globally to meet demand of minerals mass consumption
19.5 Proposed strategy to run mines is an economically viable (beneficial) way
19.5.1 Exploration: huge, intensive & speedy together with bringing precision in ore evaluation techniques
19.5.2 Establishing mineral inventory, cutoff grade and ore reserves
19.5.3 Division of mineral property (i.e. orebody or coal deposits into level and panels)
19.5.4 Locale-specific challenges and proposed solutions/way-outs
19.5.4.1 Underground metalliferous mining challenges
19.5.4.2 Underground coal mining challenges
19.5.4.3 Open cast/open pit mines (coal & non coal) challenges
19.5.5 Mining difficult deposits using non-conventional technologies
19.5.6 Improved fragmentation – a better way to extract minerals (ore, waste rocks, overburden) to save energy
19.5.7 Precision in operations – maximizing recovery
19.5.8 The critical path to full automation
19.5.9 Effective utilization of resources through standardization & benchmarking
19.5.10 Needs-based changes, research and development
19.6 Measures for SD through improvements environmentally, socially and ethically
19.6.1 HSE – a critical business activity for sustainable development
19.6.2 Economic development regional as well as local – A case-study
19.7 Legal compliances and mining policy
19.7.1 Mining laws – legislation
19.7.2 Minerals & mining policy
19.8 Quality of human resources
19.8.1 Academic (educational) status and standard of mining schools
19.9 The ultimate aim
19.9.1 Contented employees & stakeholders
19.9.2 Efficient systems including best practices
19.9.3 Legal compliance including Environment Management Systems (EMS)
19.9.4 World Class Management (WCM)
19.10 The way forward: proposed milestones/strategy
Questions
References
Subject index

Author Bio(s)

Dr. Ratan Tatiya is a consultant in the areas of excavation, construction, mining and allied disciplines and in a career spanning more than 42 years he has held senior positions in the industry, as a professor, researcher and consultant and has worked with multinationals from more than 40 countries. His industrial background has led to this book being industrially relevant and his academic background has ensured that the fundamentals and basics required to help readers have been included.

 
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