Biosketch — Ray H. Liu

Ray H. Liu completed a law degree at the Central Police College (Taipei, Taiwan) in 1965; studied forensic science under Prof. Robert F. Borkenstein (the inventor of Breathalyzer, the first road-side breath alcohol test device) at Indiana University (Bloomington, IN) during 1969–1971; and received a Ph.D. in chemistry from Southern Illinois University (Carbondale, IL) in 1976. Dr. Liu taught forensic science at the University of Illinois (Chicago, IL) for three years. He then worked for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Chicago, IL) and U.S. Department of Agriculture's Eastern (Philadelphia, PA) and Southern (New Orleans, LA) Regional Research Centers before joining the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) in 1984. He retired from UAB in 2004 as a professor and the director of the Graduate Program in Forensic Science and the interdisciplinary Forensic Science Doctoral Training Program. He then served as a chair professor at Fooyin University (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) for eight years (2004–2012).

Dr. Liu’s work and expertise are mainly on the analysis of commonly abused drugs by immunoassay, chromatography, and mass spectrometric methodologies. He has authored/co-authored approximately 150 books, invited book chapters, and refereed journal articles. Works directly related to these topic matters are included in the “Selected Publications” list shown below. Dr. Liu continues to serve as a laboratory inspector for the National Laboratory Certification Program (NLCP) since the program’s instigation in the 1980s. He is currently on the editorial boards of Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Forensic Toxicology (Tokyo), and the Journal of Food and Drug Analysis (Taipei). He is also the founding editor (1989) of Forensic Science Review (www.forensicsciencereview.com) — a review journal subscribed to by all major crime laboratories in the world.

Selected Publications

Books

• Liu RH, Goldberger BA (Eds): Handbook of Workplace Drug Testing; American Association for Clinical Chemistry Press: Washington, DC; 390 pp; 1995.
• Liu RH, Gadzala D: Handbook of Drug Analysis — Applications in Forensic and Clinical Laboratories; American Chemical Society Press: Washington, DC; 367 pp; 1997.
• Liu RH, Wang S-M, Canfield DV: Quantitation and Mass Spectrometric Data of Drugs and Isotopically Labeled Analogs; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL; 498 pp; 2010.

Invited Book Chapters

• Liu RH: Mass Spectrometry of Commonly Abused Drugs; In Yinon J (Ed): Forensic Mass Spectrometry; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL; Chapter 1; 1987.
• Liu RH: Applications of Mass Spectrometry to Forensic Sciences; In Lee HC, Gaensslen RE (Eds): Advances in Forensic Sciences, Vol. 2; Year Book Medical Publishers: Chicago, IL; Chapter 3; 1989.
• Liu RH: Sample Differentiation by Stable-Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry; In Ho M (Ed): Analytical Methods in Forensic Chemistry; Ellis Horwood: Chichester, West Sussex, England; Chapter 4; 1990.
• Liu RH: Mass Spectrometry — Applications in Forensic Science; In Townshend A, Worsfold PJ, Haswell SJ, Macrae R, Werner HW, Wilson ID (Eds): Encyclopedia of Analytical Science; Academic Press: London, U.K.; pp 2989–2996; 1995.
• Liu RH: Comparison of Common Immunoassay Kits for Effective Application in Workplace Drug Urinalysis; In Liu RH, Goldberger BA (Eds): Handbook of Workplace Drug Testing; American Association for Clinical Chemistry Press: Washington, DC; Chapter 4; 1995.
• Huang M-C, Chang B-L, Liao C-H, Liu RH*: Drugs of Abuse: Urine; In Siegel J, Saukko P, Knupfer G (Eds): Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences; Academic Press: London, U.K.; pp 651–662; 2000.
• Meier-Augenstein W, Liu RH*: Forensic Application of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry; In Yinon J (Ed): Advances in Forensic Applications of Mass Spectrometry (ISBN 0-8493-1522-0); CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.; Chapter 4; 2004.
• Lewis RJ, Liu RH*: Mass Spectrometry — Forensic Applications; In Worsfold P, Townshend A, Poole C (Eds): Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, 2nd ed. Vol 5 (ISBN 0-12-764100-9); Elsevier Science: Oxford, U.K. pp 484–492; 2005.
• Chaturvedi AK, Liu RH*: Substance Misuse — Urine Analysis; In Payne-James J, Byard RW, Corey TS, Henderson C (Eds): Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine (ISBN 0-12-547970-0), Vol. 4; Elsevier Science: Oxford, U.K.; pp 171–183; 2005.

Articles in Refereed Journals

• Liu J[R]H*, Fitzgerald MP, Smith GV: Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Cannabinoids in Raw Cannabis sativa L. Samples; Anal Chem 51:1875–1877; 1979.
• Liu J[R]H*, Lin WF, Fitzgerald MP, Saxena SC, Shieh YN: Possible Characterization of Samples of Cannabis sativa L. by Their Carbon Isotope Distribution; J Forensic Sci 24: 814–816; 1979.
• Liu J[R]H*, Fitzgerald MP: Mass Spectrometric Differentiation of Cannabinoid-Containing Samples; J Forensic Sci 25:815–820; 1980.
• Liu J[R]H: Approaches to Drug Sample Differentiation. I: A Conceptual Review; J Forensic Sci 26:651–655; 1981.
• Liu J[R]H*, Ramesh S, Tsay JT, Ku WW, Fitzgerald MP, Angelos S, Lins CLK: Approaches to Drug Sample Differentiation. II: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometric Determination of Amphetamine Enantiomers; J Forensic Sci 26:656–663; 1981.
• Liu J[R]H*, Ku WW: Determination of Enantiomeric N-Trifluoroacetyl-l-prolyl Chloride Amphetamine Derivatives by Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry with Chiral and Achiral Stationary Phases; Anal Chem 53:2180–2187; 1981.
• Liu J[R]H*, Ku WW, Tsay JT, Fitzgerald MP, Kim S: Approaches to Drug Sample Differentiation. III: A Comparative Study of the Use of Chiral and Achiral Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Methamphetamine Enantiomers and Possible Impurities; J Forensic Sci 27:39–48; 1982.
• Liu J[R]H*, Tsay JT: The Use of Chiral Lanthanide Shift Reagents for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometric Determination of Amphetamine Enantiomers; Analyst 107:544–549; 1982.
• Liu J[R]H*, Ku WW, Fitzgerald MP: Separation and Characterization of Drugs and Their Enantiomers by Capillary Column GC/MS; J Assoc Off Anal Chem 66:1443–1446; 1983.
• Liu RH*, KU WW: Chiral Stationary Phases for Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Enantiomers; J Chromatogr 271:309–323; 1983.
• Liu RH*, Low IA, Smith FP, Piotrowski EG, Hsu A-F: Chemical Ionization Characteristics of Morphine Alkaloids; Org Mass Spectrom 20:511–514; 1985.
• Low IA, Liu RH*, Furner R, Piotrowski EG: Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometric Determination of Carbon Isotope Composition in Unpurified Samples: Methamphetamine Example; Biomed Mass Spectrom 13:531–534; 1986.
• Liu RH*, Legendre MG: Relative Intensities of Selected Ions of Methaqualone-Related Compounds; J Forensic Sci 31:401–402; 1986.
• Smith FP*, Liu RH: Detection of Cocaine Metabolite in Perspiration Stain, Menstrual Bloodstain and Hair; J Forensic Sci 31:1269–1273; 1986.
• Hayes SM, Liu RH*, Tsang WS, Legendre MG, Berni RJ, Pillion DJ, Barnes S, Ho MH: Enantiomeric Composition Analysis of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine by Chiral Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry; J Chromatogr 398: 239–246; 1987.
• Gadzala DE, Liu RH*, Legendre MG, Ku WW: Mass Spectra of Derivatized Ephedrine and Norephedrine; Org Mass Spectrom 23:851–952; 1988.
• Liu RH*, Baugh LD, Allen EE, Salud SC, Fentress JC, Chadha H, Walia AS: Isotopic Analogue as the Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination of Benzoylecgonine: Concerns with Isotopic Purity and Concentration Level; J Forensic Sci 34:986–990; 1989.
• Ho YS, Liu RH*, Nichols A, Kumar SD: Isotopic Analogue as the Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination: Evaluation of Mass Spectra of Commonly Abused Drugs and Their Deuterated Analogues; J Forensic Sci 35:123–132; 1990.
• Bond GD, Chand P, Walia AS, Liu RH*: Observation of Reduced Concentration of Δ9-THC-Carboxylic Acid in Urine Specimen Containers Using Internal Barcode Labels; J Anal Toxicol 14:389–390; 1990.
• Baugh LD, Liu RH*, Walia AS: Simultaneous Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Assay of Methadone and 2-Ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenyl-pyrrolidine (EDDP) in Urine; J Forensic Sci 36:548–555; 1991.
• Simpson BJ*, Simpson TP, Liu RH: Microcrystalloscopic Differentiation of 3,4-Methylene- dioxyamphetamine and Related Amphetamine Derivatives; J Forensic Sci 36:908–914; 1991.
• Gan BK, Baugh LD, Liu RH*, Walia AS: Simultaneous Analysis of Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Urine Samples by Solid-phase Extraction/ Derivatization and GC/MS; J Forensic Sci 36:1331–1341; 1991.
• Langner JG, Gan BK, Liu RH*, Baugh LD, Chand P, Weng J-L, Edwards C, Walia AS: Enzymatic Digestion, Solid-Phase Extraction, and GC/MS Analysis of Derivatized Intact Oxazepam in Urine; Clin Chem 37:1595–1601; 1991.
• Weaver ML, Gan BK, Allen EE, Baugh LD, Liao F-Y, Liu RH*, Langner JG, Walia AS, Cook LF: Correlations on Radioimmunoassay, Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay, and Enzyme Immunoassay of Cannabis Metabolites with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis of 11-Nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic Acid in Urine Specimens; Forensic Sci Int 49:43–56; 1991.
• Baugh LD, Allen EE, Liu RH*, Langner JG, Fentress JC, Chadha SC, Cook LF, Walia AS: Evaluation of Immunoassay for the Screening of Cocaine Metabolites in Urine; J Forensic Sci 36:79–85; 1991.
• Liu RH: Important Considerations in the Interpretation of Forensic Urine Drug Testing Results; Forensic Sci Rev 4:51–65; 1992.
• Fyfe MJ, Chand P, McCutchen C, Long JS, Walia AS, Edwards C, Liu RH*: Performance Characteristics of Phencyclidine Assay Using Reply Analyzer and Emit d.a.u., Emit 700, and 1:1 (Emit d.a.u./Emit 700) Reagents; J Anal Toxicol 17:188–189; 1993.
• Fyfe MJ, Chand P, McCutchen C, Long JS, Walia AS, Edwards C, Liu RH*: Evaluation of Enzyme Immunoassay Performance Characteristics — Phencyclidine Example; J Forensic Sci 38:156–164; 1993.
• Edwards C, Fyfe MJ, Liu RH, Walia AS: Evaluation of Common Urine Specimen Adulteration Indicators; J Anal Toxicol 17:251–252; 1993.
• Holland MM*, Roy R, Fraser MD, Liu RH: Application of Serological and DNA Methods for the Identification of Urine Specimen Donors; Forensic Sci Rev 5:1–14; 1993. (Review article)
• Liu RH: Common Commercial Immunoassay for Workplace Drug Urinalysis — Principle, Cross-Reactivity, and Interference; J Food Drug Anal (Taipei) 2:1–39; 1994. (Review article)
• Liu RH: Comparison of Common Immunoassay Kits for Effective Application in Workplace Drug Urinalysis; Forensic Sci Rev 6:19–57; 1994. (Review article)
• Liu RH*, McKeehan AM, Edwards C, Foster GF, Bensley WD, Langner JG, Walia AS: Improved Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Barbiturates in Urine Using Centrifuge-Based Solid-Phase Extraction, Methylation, with d5-Pentobarbital as Internal Standard; J Forensic Sci 39:1501–1514; 1994.
• Liu RH*, Edwards C, Baugh LD, Weng J-L, Fyfe MJ, Walia AS: Selection of an Appropriate Initial Test Cutoff Level for Workplace Drug Urinalysis — Cannabis Example; J Anal Toxicol 18:65–70; 1994.
• Liu RH*, Foster GF, Cone EJ, Kumar SD: Selecting an Appropriate Isotopic Internal Standard for Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Drugs of Abuse — Pentobarbital Example; J Forensic Sci 40:983–989; 1995.
• Wang P-Y, Tai S-J, Huang B-C, Liu RH, Suen ET-T: GC/MS Analysis of Amphetamine in Urine with Amphetamine-d5 (Side Chain) as an Internal Standard; J Food Drug Analysis (Taipei) 4:123–130; 1996.
• Sellers J, Duffitt GL, Gaines M, Liu RH*: Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Enantiomeric Composition of Abused Drugs; Forensic Sci Rev 8:91–109; 1996. (Review article)
• Brendler J, Liu RH*: Correlation of Cannabinoids Radioimmunoassay and GC/MS Test Results — A Comparison of Two Commercial Assay Kits; Clin Chem 43:688–690; 1997.
• Lin D-L, Kuo T-L, Liu RH*: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of 11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Urine; J Food Drug Analysis (Taipei) 7:37–43; 1999.
• Tsai Y-Y, Tai S-J, Huang, M-C, Chang B-L, Liao C-H, Liu RH*: Solid-phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis of 11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Urine for Monitoring Marijuana Abuse; J Food Drug Analysis (Taipei) 7:177–184; 1999.
• Iwanicki RM, Maier K, Zlotnick JA, Liu RH*, Kuo T-L, Tagliaro F: Separation of Enantiomeric Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine — High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis; J Forensic Sci 44:470–474; 1999.
• Chang W-T, Lin D-L, Low I-A, Liu RH*: 13C4-Secobarbital as the Internal Standard for the Quantitative Determination of Secobarbital — A Critical Evaluation; J Forensic Sci 45:659–664; 2000.
• Lin D-L, Chang W-T, Kuo T-L, Liu RH*: Chemical Derivatization and the Selection of Deuterated Internal Standard for Quantitative Determination — Methamphetamine Example; J Anal Toxicol 24:275–280; 2000.
• Whiting TC, Liu RH*, Chang W-T, Bodapati MR: Isotopic Analogs as Internal Standards for Quantitative Analyses of Drugs/Metabolites by GC/MS — Non-linear Calibration Approaches; J Anal Toxicol 25:179–189; 2001.
• Chang W-T, Lin D-L, Liu RH*: Isotopic Analogs as Internal Standards for Quantitative Analyses by GC/MS — Evaluation of Cross-Contribution to Ions Designated for the Analyte and the Isotopic Internal Standard; Forensic Sci Int 121:174–182; 2001.
• Chang W-T, Liu RH*: Mechanistic Studies on the Use of 2H- and 13C-Analogs as Internal Standards in Selected Ion Monitoring GC/MS Quantitative Determination — Butalbital Example; J Anal Toxicol 25:659– 669; 2001.
• Chang W-T, Smith J, Liu RH*: Isotopic Analogs as Internal Standards for Quantitative GC/MS Analysis — Molecular Abundance and Retention Time Difference as Interference Factors; J Forensic Sci 47:873–881; 2002.
• Liu RH*, Lin T-L, Chang W-T, Liu C, Tsay W-I, Li J-H, Kuo T-L: Isotopically Labeled Analogues for Drug Quantitation; Anal Chem 74:618A–626A; 2002.
• Liu C, Huang M-K, Tsay W-I, Liu RH, Li J-H*: Use of MDMA and Marijuana among Arrestees in Taiwan — A Survey Based on Laboratory Test of Urine Specimens; J Food Drug Analysis (Taipei) 10:107–111; 2002.
• Liu J-T, Liu RH*: Enantiomeric Composition of Abused Amine Drugs — Chromatographic Methods of Analysis and Data Interpretation; J Biochem Biophys Methods 54:115–146; 2002.
• Wang P-H, Liu C, Tsay W-I, Li J-H, Liu RH*, Wu T-G, Cheng W-J, Lin D-L, Huang T-Y, Chen C-H: Improved Screen and Confirmation Test of 7-Aminoflunitrazepam in Urine Specimens for Monitoring Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) Exposure; J Anal Toxicol 26:411–418; 2002.
• Hsu J, Liu RH, Liu C, Hsu CP, Tsay W-I, Chou CC, Li J-H*, Lin D-L: Performance Characteristics of Latest Immunoassays for Preliminary Test of MDMA an Related Drugs in Urine; J Anal Toxicol 27:471–478; 2003.
• Lin D-L, Yin R-M, Liu H-C, Wang C-Y, Liu RH*: Deposition Characteristics of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Fingernail Clippings and Hair Sections; J Anal Toxicol 28:411–417; 2004.
• Lin D-L, Liu H-C, Yin R-M, Chen D-T, Soong S-J, Liu RH*: Effectiveness of Multiple Internal Standards — Deuterated Analogs of Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Methylenedioxyamphetamine, Methamphetamine, and Amphetamine; J Anal Toxicol 28:650–655; 2004.
• Chuang S-F, Wu S-C, Tsay W-I, Li J-H*, Liu RH, Liu J-T, Lee T-C, Yang Y-T, Sun M-P: Analysis of MDMA and Ketamine Sample Seizures in Taiwan; Taiwan J Public Health (Taipei) 24:264–273; 2005. (In Chinese with English abstract)
• Wang S-M, Chye S-M, Liu RH*, Lewis RJ, Canfield DV, Roberts J: Mass Spectrometric Data of Commonly Abused Amphetamines and Their Derivatives — Cross Contributions of Ion Intensity between the Analytes and Their Isotopically Labeled Analogs; Forensic Sci Rev 17(2):67–166; July 2005.
• Lin D-L*, Yin R-M, Liu RH: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis of Amphetamine Methamphetamine, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 3,4-Methylenedioxymeth- amphetamine in Human Hair and Hair Sections; J Food Drug Analysis (Taipei) 13(3):193–200; Sept. 2005.
• Wang S-M, Lewis RJ, Canfield D, Li T-L, Chen C-Y, Liu RH*: Enantiomeric Analysis of Ephedrines and Norephedrines; J Chromatogr B 825(1):88–95; Oct. 2005.
• Lin D-L, Yin R-M, Chen C-H, Chen Y-L*, Liu RH: Performance Characteristics of 7-Aminoflunitrazepam Specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays; J Anal Toxicol 29(7):718– 723; Oct. 2005.
• Huang M-H, Liu RH*, Chen Y-L, Rhodes SL: Correlation of Drug Testing Results — Immuno- assay versus Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Forensic Sci Rev 18(1):9–41; Jan. 2006.
• Liu H-C, Ho H-O, Liu RH, Lin D-L*: Urinary Excretion of Morphine and Codeine Following the Administration of Single- and Multiple-Dose of Opium Preparations Prescribed in Taiwan as "Brown Mixture"; J Anal Toxicol 30(4):225–231; May 2006.
• Wang S-M, Wu M-Y, Liu RH*, Lewis RJ, Canfield DV: Evaluation of Isotopically Labeled Internal Standards and Methods of Derivatization for Quantitative Determination of Cocaine and Related Compounds; Forensic Toxicol (Tokyo) 24(1):23–35; July 2006.
• Wang S-M, Chye S-M, Liu RH*, Lewis RJ, Canfield DV: Mass Spectrometric Data Characteristics of Commonly Abused Amphetamines with Sequential Derivatization at Two Active Sites; Forensic Sci Int 161(2–3):97–118; Sept. 2006.
• Wang S-M*, Lin C-C, Li T-L, Shih C-Y, Giang Y-S, Liu RH: Distribution Characteristics of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Urine and Hair Specimens Collected from Alleged Methamphetamine Users in Northern Taiwan; Anal Chim Acta 576:140–146; 2006.
• Li T-L, Giang Y-S, Hsu J-F, Cheng S-G, Liu RH, Wang S-M*: Artifacts in the GC-MS Profiling of Underivatized Methamphetamine Hydrochloride; Forensic Sci Int 162:113–120; Sept. 2006.
• Liu RH, Liu H-C, Lin D-L*: Distribution of Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) in Postmortem and Antemortem Specimens; J Anal Toxicol 30(8):545–550; Oct. 2006.
• Tseng YL*, Lin C-T, Wang S-M, Liu RH: Famprofazone as the Source of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Urine Specimen Collected during Sport Competition; J Forensic Sci 52(2):479–486; March 2007.
• Huang M-H, Wu M-Y, Tsai J-L, Lee H-W, Wu C-H, Liu RH*: Performance Characteristics of ELISAs for Monitoring Ketamine Exposure; Clin Chim Acta 379(1/2):59–65; April 2007.
• Hsu M-C, Chan KH*, Chu W-L, Liu RH: Collaborative Study on the Determination of 7-Aminoflunitrazepam in Urine by GC-MS; J Food Drug Analysis (Taipei) 15(2); 202–205; June 2007.
• Wu C-H, Huang M-H, Wang S-M, Lin C-C, Liu RH*: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ketamine and Its Metabolites — A Comparative Study on the Utilization of Different Derivatization Groups; J Chromatogr A 1157(1/2):336–351; July 2007.
• Chen B-G, Wang S-M, Liu RH*: GC-MS Analysis of Multiply-Derivatized Opioids in Urine; J Mass Spectrom 42(8): 1012–1023; August 2007.
• Liu RH, Wu C-H, Chen Y-J, Chang C-D, Linville JG, Canfield DV*: Intensity of the Internal Standard’s Response as the Basis for Reporting a Test Specimen as Negative or Inconclusive; J Anal Toxicol 31(9): 549–554; Nov./Dec. 2007.
• Wu C-H, Yang S-C, Wang Y-S, Chen B-G, Lin C-C, Liu RH*: Evaluation of Various Derivatization Approaches for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Buprenorphine and Norbuprenorphine; J Chromatogr A 1182(1):93–112; Feb. 2008.
• Lin D-L, Wang S-M, Wu C-H, Chen B-G, Liu RH*: Chemical Derivatization for the Analysis of Drugs by GC-MS — A Conceptual Review; J Food Drug Analysis (Taipei) 16(1):1–10; Feb. 2008.
• Chen B-G, Chang CD, Wang C-T, Chang W-T, Wang S-M, Liu RH*: A Novel Approach to Evaluate the Extent and the Effect of Cross-Contribution to the Intensity of Ions Designating the Analyte and the Internal Standard in Quantitative GC-MS Analysis; J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 19(4):598–608; April, 2008.
• Chen B-G, Wu M-Y, Liu RH, Wang S-M, Lewis RJ, Ritter RO, Canfield DV: Mass Spectra and Cross Contributions of Ion Intensity Between the Analytes and Their Isotopically Labeled Analogs — Common Opioids and Their Derivatives; Forensic Sci Rev 20(2):75–173; July 2008.
• Wang S-M, Chen B-G, Wu M-Y, Liu RH*, Lewis RJ, Ritter RO, Canfield DV: Mass Spectra and Cross Contributions of Ion Intensity Between Drug Analytes and Their Isotopically Labeled Analogs — Common Benzodiazepines and Their Derivatives; Forensic Sci Rev 21(2):69–144; July 2009.
• Hsu M-C*, Chen D, Liu RH: Detection of Abused Drugs in Urine by GC-MS; J Food Drug Analysis (Taipei); 17(4):233–245; Aug. 2009.
• Wu M-Y, Wang Y-S, Lin C-C, Lin D-L, Su L-W, Huang M-H*, Liu RH*: An Empirical Study on the Selection of Analytes and Corresponding Cutoffs for Immunoassay and GC-MS in a Two-Step Test Strategy — Buprenorphine Example; Analyst 134(9):1848–1856; Sept. 2009.
• Lin DL*, Liu H-C, Liu RH: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Related Deaths in Taiwan: 2001–2008; J Anal Toxicol 33(7):366–371; Sept. 2009.
• Liu H-C, Liu RH, Ho H-O*, Lin D-L*: Developing an Information-Rich LC-MSMS Database for the Analysis of Drugs in Postmortem Specimens; Anal Chem 81(21):9002–9011; Nov. 2009.
• Liu H-C, Ho H-O, Liu RH, Lin D-L: Determination of codeine and morphine in brown mixture (opium preparations) in Taiwan using SPE and GC/MS; Forensic Science Journal (Taoyuan, Taiwan) 8(1):1–11; Dec. 2009.
• Liu H-C, Meng C-K, Liu RH, Ho H-O*, Lin D-L*: Rapid Screening and Confirmation of Drugs and Toxic Compounds in Biological Specimens Using LC/Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Automated Library Search; Rapid Comm Mass Spectrom 24(1):75–84; Jan. 2010.
• Wang Y-S, Lin D-L, Yang S-C, Wu M-Y, Liu RH*, Su L-W, Cheng P-S, Liu C: Issues Pertaining to the Analysis of Buprenorphine and Its Metabolites by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; J Chromatogr A 1217(11):1688–1694; March 2010.
• Huang W-H, Liu C-H, Liu RH, Tseng Y-L*: Confirming Urinary Excretion of Mephentermine and Phentermine Following the Ingestion of Oxethazaine by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis; J Anal Toxicol 34(2):73-77; March 2010.
• Sie M-J, Chen B-G, Chang, C-D, Lin CH, Liu RH*: Detector Response and Intensity Cross-Contribution as Contributing Factors to the Observed Nonlinear Calibration Curves in Mass Spectrometric Analysis; Analyst 136(2):393–400; Jan. 2011.
• Yen H-Y, Liu RH, Kuo T-L, Lin C-C, Li TL, Giang Y-S, Wang S-M: Quantitative and Enantiomeric Compositions of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Rat Tissue Following the Administration of Benzphetamine; Forensic Science Journal 10(1):39–47; Dec. 2011.
• Hsu Y-C, Chen B-G, Yang S-C, Wang Y-S, Huang S-P, Huang M-H, Chen T-J, Lin D-L, Liu RH*, Jones AW: Methadone Concentrations in Blood, Plasma, and Oral Fluid Determined by Isotope-Dilution Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry; Anal Bioanal Chem 405(12):3921–3928; April 2013.