Water, sanitary and waste services represent a substantial proportion of the cost of construction, averaging 10% of the capital costs of building and with continuing costs in operation and maintenance. Nevertheless, they are often regarded as a 'Cinderella' within the building process. Parts of many different codes and regulations impact on these services, making an overall viewpoint more difficult to get.
This new edition of this classic text draws together material from a variety of sources to provide the comprehensive coverage not available elsewhere. It is a resource for the sound design, operation and maintenance of these services and should be on the bookshelf of every building services engineer and architect.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Water use, load and storage estimation. Introduction, water use data, approaches based on probability assessment, theoretical considerations, establishing design procedures, fixture unit methods, some codified procedures, more advanced methods of load estimation, sanitary accommodation in large buildings, storage requirements. Chapter 2: Water requirements and Regulations. Introduction - the governing role of the 1999 Water Regulations, general requirements, water quality considerations - aesthetic qualities - health aspects, classificaiton of risk - development of classifications - fluid categories in the 1999 Regulations, Regulations relating to fittings and systems. Chapter 3: Water installations. Resume of conventional UK practice, practice abroad, general matters of design and installation, preservation of water quality, cross-connection and back-flow principles - protective measures - application of protective measures - testing, temperature and pressure relief in hot water services, hot water storage, 1999 Building Regulations. Chapter 4: Principles of soil and waste pipe installations. Introduction, historical background, performance requirements, variable discharge, characteristics of individual discharges; branch flows, self-siphonage of trap seals, flow and induced siphonage with combined branches, water flow and air pressure distribution in stacks, flow and siphonage in horizontal installations. Chapter 4: Design of soil and waste pipe installations. Introduction, relevance to a range of building types, traps and valves, pipes and fittings - note on pipe sizes, design of individual branches, application of information on individual branches, design of combined branches, design of stacks and ancillary venting, design of 'horizontal' installations. Chapter 6: Solid waste storage and handling. Introduction, range of methods, types and quantities of wastes, equipment and methods, recycling, in conclusion. Chapter 7: Rationalisation of services. Introductory review, service walls, heart units, rationalisation of sanitary layout, discussion, environmental assessment. Chapter 8: Fluid flow principles and studies. Turbulent flow - friction loss, flow in partially filled pipes, resistance formulae for stead uniform flow in partially filled pipes, flow depths and velocities under steady uniform conditions, steady, non-uniform, free surface flow, gradually varied flow, discharge to a stack or free outfall, gradually varied flow profile upstream of junctions or obstructions, rapidly varied flow and the hydraulic jump, steady flow depths at pipe junctions, compressible flow - back siphonage text, waterhammer, investigation and analysis of self-siphonage, discharge from water closets, investigation and analysis of stack flows and pressures and vent sizing, features of the water and air flow, water flow capacity of stacks, approach to vent sizing, further analysis of annular downflow, entrained air and suction. Chapter 9: Unsteady flow modelling in building drainage systems. Drainage systems as an example of an unsteady flow regime, the modelling of unsteady flow conditions, free surface wave propagation, low-amplitude air pressure transient propagation in vent systems, application of a computing model to building drainage design, drainage network simulation, inclusion of solid transport within the method of characteristics model of unsteady flow, self-cleansing flows, applicaiton of the method of characteristics to modelling low-amplitude air pressure transients, network modelling, air flow stoppages - postiive transients, offsets in stacks, in conclusion. Chapter 10: Noise. Measures of noise, noise sources, noise from valves and fittings - effects of turbulence and separation, water hammer, noise transmission, prevention of noise, experimental methods, testing, notes on terms. Chapter 11: Water conservation. Introduction, impact of the 1999 Water Regulations, water closets and some alternatives, urinals, other equipment, charges for water, metering, recycling of water, autonomous house installations, in conclusion. Chapter 12: Soil and waste drainage underground. Resume of requirements, general design aspects, flow in drains, observations of drainage in practice, implications of practical and flow studies, establishing sizes and gradients, establishing the spacing and design of access. Chapter 13: Rainwater drainage. General considerations, meteorological factors, run-off, flow in gutters and outlets, examples of design information, siphonic drainage systems. Chapter 14: Plastics and their appplications. Types of plastics, forming materials to shape, properties of plastics, pipework for cold water supply, pipework for hot water, soil and waste pipes, other applications. Appendix 1: Fluid flow considerations. Appendix 2: Notes on sizing storage and piping for water supply. Bibliography