FROM THE PREFACE
Wastewater collection systems are dynamic, not static. There is no single maintenance method, equipment, or technique that works best. Keeping an open mind, trying new techniques and technologies benefits sewer system operators.
No two collection systems are alike. Maintenance staffing, skill levels, equipment, budgets, age and complexity of the system make each agency unique. However, collection systems do have many traits and problems in common. Based on inventory and analysis, problems are identified. Defects may then be prioritized, and corrective maintenance operations put into effect.
Preventive maintenance techniques can be applied to all collection systems. Preventive maintenance is cost-effective; it strives to prevent problems from occurring rather than reacting to difficult situations and "putting out fires."
This book examines problems shared by all agencies: roots, grease, deterioration, hydraulic inefficiencies and structural defects. New solutions to age-old problems are applied: TV inspection and video interpretation, rehabilitation analysis and trenchless technologies. Computerized maintenance management and GIS softwares are discussed. Jetting, line cleaning and exciting developments in nozzle technology are included. Roots and chemical root control foam, wastewater control and grease are major topics as well.
Wastewater Collection System Maintenance shares insights drawn from operator experience, trial and error, successes and failures in the field, interviews and years of research and studies. A user-friendly rating and evaluation system is explained and applied to field conditions. Equipment operation and maintenance, and "tricks of the trade" are also discussed.
As cities grow, new systems are extended upstream from older sewers. Many of these core drainage basins are now under capacity and in need of capital improvement projects.
There are approximately 600,000 miles of sanitary sewers in the country. Nationwide, there exists a huge backlog of sewer pipes that need rehabilitation. Replacement would cost many billions of dollars. Maintenance operators are entrusted with the care and feeding of an aging sewer infrastructure.
Table of Contents
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Introduction - In this Book - Scope of this Book - Model System - Wastewater Collection System Maintenance Defined - The Challenge - The Solution - Past, Future, Present - Conclusion
Health and Safety in Wastewater Collection Systems - In this Chapter - Introduction - Priorities - Responsibilities - Safety First - Tailgate Safety Meetings - Health and Safety - Safety Training - Hazard Recognition - Atmospheric Hazards - Chemical Hazards - Sewer Gas - Confined Space Entries - Traffic Safety - Health and Disease - Other Hazards - Gloves - Other Issues - Conclusion - Safety Glossary - Safety References - Additional Safety Resources
Types of Sewers - In this Chapter - Conventional Sewers - Lift Stations - Storm Sewers - Alternative Collection Systems - Size of Sanitary Sewers - Conclusion
Pipe Types - In this Chapter - Flexible Pipes - Rigid Piping - Other Topics - Conclusion - Pipe Type - References
Line Cleaning Equipment and Techniques - In this Chapter - Line Cleaning - Line Cleaning - Intervals - Line Cleaning Techniques - Flushing - Hydraulic Line Cleaning Devices - Rodding - Conclusion - Line Cleaning References
Jetting Operations - In this Chapter - Introduction to Jetting Operations - How Jetting Works - Purpose - Jetting Techniques - Return Flow Observation - Off-Road Jetting - Easement Jetting - Easement Jetter Operation - Chemical Jetting - Jetting Objectives - Jet Truck Components - Water Tanks - Water Tank Types - Water Pumps - Plumbing - Water Delivery Systems - Gauges - Troubleshooting and Jet Truck Maintenance - Pump Power Systems - Conclusion
Nozzle Technology - In this Chapter - Volume and Pressure - Torque and Thrust - Jetting Nozzles - Nozzle Types - Root-Cutting Tools and Equipment - Hydraulic Root Saws - Skids - Root-Cutting Attachments - Chain Knockers - Tornado Spinners - Conclusion
Purchasing a Jetter - In this Chapter - Introduction - Jet Truck Specifications
Wastewater Control and Grease - In this Chapter - Introduction - Wastewater Control - Problem - Identification - Grease Traps - Sand and Oil Traps - Sand Trap Inspection Techniques - Grease Trap Inspection - Techniques - Grease Trap Evaluation - Enforcement Protocol - New Traps - Sources of Grease - Other Sources of Fat, Oil, and Grease - Line Evaluations and Main Line Maintenance Intervals - Chemical Grease Control - Bioremediation - Grease Trap Service Companies - Conclusion - References for Wastewater Control and Grease
Roots - In this Chapter - Introduction - Types of Roots - Factors Affecting Root Intrusion - Pipe Type - Detecting Roots - TV Evaluation of Roots - Evaluation and Rating System - Why Rate Roots? - Methods for Maintaining Root-Free Lines - Root Cutting - Conclusion - References for Roots
Chemical Root Control and Foam - In this Chapter - Introduction - Chemical Root Control - EPA - Properties of Foam - Application Techniques - Water-Activated Foam - Mechanically Generated Foam - Spot - Foaming Operations - Calculations - Record Keeping - Chemical Safety - Reevaluation - Conclusion - Chemical Root Control References
Closed Circuit TV Operations - In this Chapter - Introduction - Camera History - Comparing - Camera Systems - Camera Types - Resolution - Pixels - Lighting Systems - Camera Heads - Cables - Troubleshooting - Transporters - Low-Flow TV Techniques - High-Flow TV Techniques - TV Uses - Defect - Symptoms - Video Interpretation - Defect Codes - Orientation - Information Management - Log Sheets - TV Safety - Conclusion - TV References
Computers and Maintenance Management - In this Chapter - Introduction - Computers - CMMS - Data Input - Mapping - AM - AM-FM - GIS - Other Computer Applications - Conclusion - Computer Glossary - Acknowledgement - Computerization References
Manholes - In this Chapter - Introduction - Manhole Inventory - Construction - Manhole Location - Manhole Inspection - Manhole Maintenance - Infiltration and Inflow - Access - Preventing Unauthorized Access - Conclusion
Rehabilitation Analysis - In this Chapter - Introduction - Analyzing Defects - Flow Monitoring - Sewer Main Rating System - Hydraulics - Rehabilitation Goals - Work Orders - Dating the Collection System - Corrosion - Corrosion Control - Infiltration and Inflow - Infiltration and Inflow Factors - Conclusion - Rehabilitation - Analysis References
Repairs, Rehabilitation and Trenchless Technology - In this Chapter - Introduction - Open Cut - Trenchless Technology - Cured in Place Pipe Liners - Point Repairs - Grout - Sliplining - Other Sliplining - Technologies - Trenchless Pipe Replacement - Protruding Taps - Conclusion - Trenchless Technology References
Appendices - State Environmental Training Centers - Collection System Operator Certification - Boards of Certification - List of Trade Publications and Associations
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