### Table of Contents

**
**Preface

About the author

Introduction to the Scientific Methodology of Research

Introduction

The scientific approach versus the layperson’s approach

to knowledge

Sampling

Research designs

Between-groups design

The univariate approach

The multivariate approach

Correlational design

Hypothesis testing and probability theory

Probability

Statistics and scientific research

Definition of statistics

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

**
**Introduction to SPSS

Learning how to use the SPSS software program

.Introduction to SPSS

Setting up a data file

Preparing a code-book

Data set

Creating SPSS data file

Data entry

Saving and editing data file

SPSS analysis: Windows method versus syntax method

SPSS analysis: Windows method

SPSS analysis: Syntax method

SPSS output

Results and interpretation

**
**DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Basic mathematical concepts and measurement

Basic mathematical concepts

Mathematical notations

Measurement scales (levels of measurement)

Nominal scales

Ordinal scales

Interval scales

Ratio scales

Types of variables

Independent and dependent variables

Continuous and discrete variables

Real limits of continuous variables

Rounding

**
**Frequency distributions

Ungrouped frequency distributions

SPSS: Data entry format

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Results and interpretation

Grouped frequency distributions

Grouping scores into class intervals

Computing a frequency distribution of grouped scores

SPSS method

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Percentiles and percentile ranks

Percentiles

Computation of percentiles (finding the score below which a specified percentage of scores will fall)

SPSS syntax method

Data entry format

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Another example

Data entry format

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Percentile rank

Computation of percentile ranks (finding the percentage of scores that fall below a given score)

Data entry format

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Another example

Data Entry Format

SPSS Syntax Method

SPSS Output

**
**Graphing

Graphing frequency distributions

Bar graph

An example

Data entry format

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS bar graph output

Histogram

An example

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS histogram output

Frequency polygon

An example

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS frequency polygon output

Cumulative percentage curve

An example

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS Cumulative percentage Output

**
**Measures of central tendency

Why is central tendency important?

Measures of central tendency

The arithmetic mean

How to calculate the arithmetic mean

SPSS Window method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

How to calculate the mean from a grouped frequency distribution

An example

Calculating the mean from grouped frequency distribution using SPSS

Data entry format

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

The overall mean

An example

How to calculate the overall mean

using SPSS

Data entry format

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Properties of the mean

The median

Calculating the median for ungrouped scores

Calculating the median for grouped scores

Properties of the median

The mode

SPSS windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS histogram output

The mode for grouped scores

Comparison of the mean, median and mode

Measures of central tendency: symmetry and skewness

**
**Measures of variability/dispersion

What is variability?

Range

Standard deviation

Calculating the standard deviation using the deviation scores method

Calculating the standard deviation using the raw scores method

Variance

Using SPSS to calculate the range, the standard deviation, and the variance

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

**
**The normal distribution and standard scores

The normal distribution

Areas contained under the standard normal distribution

Standard scores (*z* scores) and the normal curve

Calculating the percentile rank with *z* scores

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS data file containing the first 0

computed *z* scores

Calculating the percentage of scores that fall between

two known scores

Calculating the percentile point with *z* scores

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

Table showing the 90th percentile for the set

of 0 exam scores

Calculating the scores that bound a specified area of the

distribution

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

Table showing the approximate lower and upper bound scores that bound the middle 70% of the statistics exam’s distribution

Using *z* scores to compare performance between different distributions

**
**Correlation

The concept of correlation

Linear and non-linear relationships

Characteristics of correlation

Magnitude (strength) of relationships

Direction of relationships

Correlation coefficient and *z* scores

Scatter plot (SPSS Windows method)

Scatter plot (SPSS syntax method)

Scatter plot

Converting raw scores into *z *scores (SPSS Windows method)

Converting raw scores into *z* scores (SPSS syntax method)

SPSS data file containing the pairs of computed *z* scores

Pearson *r* and the linear correlation coefficient

Example of the Pearson *r* calculation

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

The calculated Pearson *r*

Some issues with correlation

Can correlation show causality?

Spurious correlation

**
**Linear Regression

What is linear regression?

Linear regression and imperfect relationships

Scatter plot and the line of best fit

SPSS Windows method (scatter plot and line of best fit)

SPSS syntax method (scatter plot)

Scatter plot with line of best fit

Least-squares regression (line of best fit): Predicting *Y* from *X*

How to construct the least-squares regression line: Predicting *Y* from *X*

SPSS Windows method (constructing the least-squares regression line equation)

SPSS syntax method (constructing the least-squares regression line equation)

SPSS output

Results and interpretation

**
**INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

Statistical inference and probability

Introduction to inferential statistics

Probability

The classical approach to probability

The empirical approach to probability

Expressing probability values

Computing probability: The addition rule and the multiplication rule

The addition rule

The multiplication rule

Using the multiplication and addition rules together

Computing probability for continuous variables

Sampling

Simple random sampling

Stratified proportionate random sampling

Cluster sampling

Non-random sampling techniques: Systematic sampling; quota sampling

Sampling with or without replacement

Confidence interval and confidence level

How to calculate the confidence interval

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

**
**Introduction to hypothesis testing

Introduction to hypothesis testing .

Types of hypotheses

Research/alternative hypothesis

Null hypothesis

Hypotheses: Non-directional or directional

Testing hypotheses

Level of significance

Two-tailed and one-tailed test of significance

Type I and Type II errors

**
**Hypothesis testing: *t* test for independent and correlated groups

Introduction to the *t* test

Independent *t* test

SPSS Windows method: Independent *t *test

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Results and interpretation

Dependent/correlated *t* test

SPSS Windows Method: Dependent *t* test

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Results and interpretation

**
**Hypothesis testing: One-way analysis of variance

One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

An example

Scheffé post hoc test

SPSS Windows method: One-way ANOVA

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Results and interpretation

Post hoc comparisons

Hypothesis testing: Chi-square test

Non-parametric tests

Chi-square (²) test

Chi-square goodness-of-fit test

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Results and interpretation

Chi-square (²) test of independence between two variables

SPSS Windows method

SPSS syntax method

SPSS output

Results and interpretation

**
**Appendices

Bibliography

Index