Soon after its publication in 1987, the first edition of Ultrafiltration Handbook became recognized as the leading handbook on ultrafiltration technology. Reviews in professional journals praised it as an authoritative and substantive information resource on this technology. Now a completely, updated and expanded edition is available under the title, Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook.
This practical handbook systematically covers the basics of this technology from its scientific fundamentals to a wide range of industrial applications. The presentation is clear and concise with the emphasis on practical use. Many schematics and micrographs illustrate membranes, equipment and processes. Numerous tables and graphs provide useful data on specifications and performance.
The updated information is useful to all those involved in the use of separation and filtration in industrial processes.
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with a section of references.
Definition and classification of membrane separation processes
Physical chemistry of membrane separations: Chemical potential and osmosis, Vapor pressure, Osmotic pressure and chemical potential
Definitions and classification: Depth vs. screen filters, Microporous vs. asymmetric membranes
General methods of membrane manufacture: Phase Inversion Process of Membrane Manufacture
Polymers used in membrane manufacture: Cellulose Acetate, Polyamide membranes, Polysulfone membranes, Other polymeric materials
Inorganic membranes: Properties of inorganic membranes
Pore size: Bubble point and pressure techniques, Direct microscopic observation
Predicting flux from pore statistics
Passage (challenge) tests: Microfiltration membranes, Ultrafiltration membranes
Factors affecting retentivity of membranes: Size of the molecule, Shape of the molecule, Membrane material, Presence of other solutes, Operating parameters, Lot-to-lot variability, Membrane configuration, Fouling and adsorption effects, The microenvironment
Performance and Engineering Models
The velocity boundary layer
The concentration boundary layer
Models for predicting flux: the pressure-controlled region
Mass transfer (film theory) model: Determining the mass transfer coefficient, Example
The resistance model
Osmotic pressure model for limiting flux
Factors affecting flux: operating parameters: Feed concentration, Temperature, Flow rate and turbulence
Physical properties of liquid streams: Density, Viscosity, Diffusion coefficients
Experiment vs. theory: the "flux paradox"
Design factors affecting flux
Laboratory scale devices
Industrial equipment: Tubular modules, Hollow fibers, Plate units, Spiral-wound
Special modules: Rotary modules, Vibrating modules, Dean Vortices
Fouling and Cleaning
Characteristics of fouling: Water flux
Consequences of fouling
Mathematical models of fouling
Factors affecting fouling: Membrane properties, Solute properties, Process engineering factors affecting fouling
Flux enhancement: Turbulence promoters/inserts/baffles, Back-flushing, -pulsing, -shocking and washing, Uniform transmembrane pressure/co-current permeate flow, Permeate back-pressure, Intermittent jets, Pulsatile flow, Electrical methods
Summary: Membrane Fouling
Cleaning membranes: Important factors during cleaning, Typical foulants and soils, Cleaning chemicals, Sanitizers
Physics of the ultrafiltration process: Example
Modes of operation: Discontinuous diafiltration (DD), Continuous diafiltration (CD), Dialysis ultrafiltration
Batch vs. continuous operation: Batch operation, Single pass, Feed-and-bleed, Multistage operations, Example, Control methods
Minimum process time
Fractionation of macromolecules
Energy requirements: Example
Cost and process economics: Arrays and configurations, System cost
The dairy industry: Fluid milk and fermented products, Cheese manufacture, Milk microfiltration, Cheese whey ultrafiltration, Microfiltration of whey
Wastewaters: Oily wastewater, Stillage from bioethanol plants, Caustic and acid recovery, Brine recovery, Printing ink, Laundry wastewater, Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration
Pulp and paper industry
Tanning and leather industries
Soybean and other vegetable proteins
Vegetable oils: Degumming, Deacidification, Bleaching, Removal of metals, Dewaxing, Clarifying Frying Oils
Corn and other grains: Dextrose clarification, Protein processing
Animal products: Red meat, Gelatin, Egg processing, Fish processing, Poultry industry
Biotechnology applications: Separation and harvesting of microbial cells, Enzyme recovery, Affinity ultrafiltration, Membrane bioreactors
Fruit juices and extracts
Alcoholic beverages: Wine, Beer
List of manufacturers of membrane equipment
Books and general
Glossary of terms
More than 350 Tables and Figures
Useful reference data is provided in 85 tables. Numerous schematics illustrate membranes, modules, equipment, and processes. Micrographs illustrate membranes and filtration. Here is a small sampling of this supplementary material. * Tables: Characteristics of membrane processes Comparison of energy requirements and costs between evaporation and membrane processes Methods of manufacture of synthetic membranes Materials used for the manufacture of membranes Properties of membrane filters requiring standardization Morphological parameters and bubble points for selected MF membranes-Pore size and surface porosity of ultrafiltration membranes Selected values of gel concentration-Diffusion coefficients-Relationship between channel size and surface area:volume ratio of membrane modules Hollow fibers from various manufacturers-Specifications of spiral-wound membranes from various manufacturers-Typical cleaning reagents and their modes of action-Operating economy of UF plants processing whole milk for cheese manufacture-Water purification process comparison Examples of affinity ultrafiltration
Figures: Useful ranges of various separation processes-Classification of filters-Micrograph of multistage depth filter-Schematic representation of ultrastructure of an asymmetric (skinned) membrane-Typical structures of polyamide membranes-Comparison of the performance of commercial cellulose acetate and thin-film composite (polyamide) membranes-Ceramic membrane modules in their housing-Relationship between pore size, molecular weight of ideal solutes, and ratings of ideal and real membranes Permeability of large and small molecules through large and small pore membranes-Schematic representation of the cross section of typical asymmetric UF or MF membrane-Schematic of concentration polarization during UF of colloidal and macromolecular solutes . . .-Schematic of typical plate type membrane module-Multistage filtration sowing several feed-and-bleed systems connected in series-Membrane processing of cheese whey-Selection criteria of separation methods in biopro- cessing
"The value of this work lies in the extensive compilation of information on ultrafiltration membranes and their applications. The engineering aspects of ultrafiltration are also dealt with thoroughly."
--Hans Wijmans in Membrane Technology & Research
"A comprehensive textbook on ultrafiltration has been needed for some time. Such a book is now available . . . it is well-written and useful. . . "
--C. H. Amundson, Professor, University of Wisconsin, Madison, in Food Technology
"This book is a comprehensive reference. . . . Recommended for engineering collections."
--R. Darby, Texas A&M University, in Choice (American Library Association)
". . . Ultrafiltration Handbook covers all aspects of ultrafiltration. The book is too well-written and easy to read to be a reference, but its too fact-filled and thorough to be anything but a reference book . . . .If ones work in any way involves separations technology, this handbook is invaluable."
--Jane B. James, Ph.D., Pall Corporation, Microbiology Laboratory, in SIAM News (Society for Industrial Microbiology)
"Overall, the book is well organized with a clear and attractive lay-out. . . . An excellent book which will undoubtedly become a standard work of reference both in companies manufacturing and utilizing UF systems. It contains a wealth of useful practical experience which is not to be found in much of the literature, thereby fulfilling a major criterion of any work represented as a handbook. . . . It is a very good value indeed."
--Pro Bio Tech, December 1987
"It contains a wealth of information about the UF process, and it would be an excellent addition to any library. In addition, it would make an excellent textbook for teaching the fundamentals of UF."
--Scott B. McCray, in Journal of Membrane Science
"I have profited much by the vast amount of useful information given in the book. Since your approach to the subject is popular, and your style of writing is appealing, the book is bound to be a . . . success."
--S. Sourirajan (co-inventor of the Sourirajan-Lobel synthetic membrane)