Turkey and its predecessor state, the Ottoman Empire, have been at the centre of international relations for centuries. By the late eighteenth century, what had once been the dominant power in the eastern Mediterranean and south-east Europe was gradually falling apart. For the European statesmen of the nineteenth century, it had become the 'eastern question' - a complex problem of conflicts and alliances, which also raised difficult and sometimes insoluble questions for the Turks themselves. After the collapse of the empire at the end of the First World War, Turkey was reconstructed as a nation-state by Kemal Ataturk and his colleagues, committed to modernist goals. While there were important elements of continuity between the foreign policies of the old empire and the new republic, the challenges of the twentieth century also presented Turkey's rulers with new questions and policy options. Skilful diplomacy was an essential factor in the survival of the state, both during the Second World War and in the Cold War period, in which Turkey became a vital member of the NATO alliance. After the Cold War, Turkey's international role, at the cross-roads between the Balkans, the Middle East and Transcaucasia, and as an aspiring member of the European Union, acquired new complexity and importance.
This is the first attempt to bring the whole story of Turkish foreign relations together in a comprehensive survey. For those mainly interested in Turkey's modern history, the book will fill a clear gap in the literature. For those with a broader interest in international history, the book offers important pointers as to how medium-sized states have acted in the changing international environment in the past 200 years. This revised, updated edition contains a new Preface and an extended Postscript, covering events up to 2002.
Table of Contents
Preface to the Revised Edition. Introduction 1. Foreign Relations of the Late Ottoman Empire, 1774-1918 2. Resistence, Reconstruction and Diplomacy, 1918-39 3. Turkey and the Second World War, 1939-45 4. Turkey and the Cold War: The Engagement Phase, 1945-63 5. Turkey and the Cold War: Global Shifts and Regional Conflicts, 1964-90 6. Turkish Foreign Policy after the Cold War: Strategic Options and the Domestic Environment 7. Turkey and the West after the Cold War 8. Turkey and Regional Politics after the Cold War: (i) Greece, Cyprus, the Balkans and Transcaucasia 9. Turkey and Regional Politics after the Cold War: (ii) Central Asia and the Middle East 10. Conclusions and Prospects
"an illuminating insight into the continuities as well as the changes in Turkey"s relations with the outside world since the middle of the Eighteen Century...a masterly study that includes useful historical maps and an exhaustively impressive Bibliography"
"an up to the minute account that should satisfy all those who need to understand the motives of Turkish diplomacy today, and to evaluate its results...One of the many merits of Hale"s study is that it relates foreign policy to the Turkish domestic scene, in particular to government instability in the last decade and the mismanagement of the economy which started even earlier."
"combines sound scholarship and analysis, presented in a clear,readable manner. Highly recommended as both an undergraduate and graduate text and a reference work for scholars."
"provides greater insight into Turkish foreign policy development and should be read by scholars seeking a thorough understanding of the impetus behind Turkey"s changing role in international relations"
- Journal of Peace Research
"a meticulously researched and lucidly written book with an impressive biography and useful maps. Students and scholars of Turkish foreign policy will be well served by this book for years to come"
- International Journal of Middle East Studies
" a masterful, detailed study of Turkey"s foreign policy after the end of the cold war and the disintegration of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia... a superb work, a gold mine of reliable and detached information on Turkey"s domestic and foreign affairs. It is both a political history of Turkey and an excellent study of Turkish foreign policy based on official documents and publications as well as on most of the books and articles on the topic."
- The International History Review