Between the death of Ferdinand VII (Spain's last absolute monarch) in 1833 and that of Francisco Franco (Spain's last dictator) in 1975, Spain had 127 governments. Eighteen of these governments were during the 39-year rule of Franco. This total 142-year period was witness to dethroned mon-archs, exiled regents, assassinations, and civil wars.To understand the inevitability of Spain's tumultuous and politically unstable past, historical events and conditions must be studied. To understand the Franco regime, the origins, economic conditions, and political and social circumstances must be known. And to understand and possibly predict the future of this country, the forces that are currently working in front of and behind the scenes must be explored. This Alba does. He provides the background and answers the questions of the past, present, and future of Spanish political society. He emphasizes the roles played by the labor and nationalist movements and analyzes the communist influence.