The activities of modern society have unleashed a range of toxic chemicals into the global environment. Many of these toxicants are now being detected in increasing quantities in the tissues of marine mammals, most notably in top predators who acquire relatively large amounts of toxic chemicals by ingesting contaminated prey.
Toxicology of Marine Mammals focuses on the effects of natural and introduced toxicants on organs and systems in marine mammals. It provides overviews on health status and contamination, with subsequent chapters devoted to whales, pinnipeds, dolphins, polar bears, manatees, and sea otters. Internationally renowned researchers assess the mounting evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and the chemically-induced increased susceptibility to death from infectious diseases. The concluding chapter addresses perspectives and issues for the future.
This compelling book features research from a vast geographic landscape ranging from the tropics to the Arctic, with case studies on intriguing areas of contamination such as the St. Lawrence River and the Baltic Sea. It identifies the severe threats that environmental contaminants pose to the health and future of marine mammals. It also makes an urgent call for legislation to regulate the incessant pollution ravaging our seas and devastating the marine mammal population worldwide. Toxicologists working in marine biology and veterinary medicine, conservation scientists, fisheries scientists, environmental scientists, and wildlife managers will all benefit from this comprehensive resource.
Table of Contents
PART I IMPLICATIONS OF CONTAMINANTS FOR MARINE MAMMAL HEALTH
Pathology of Marine Mammals with Special Reference to Infectious Diseases, Robert B. Moeller, Jr.
Contaminants and Marine Mammal Immunotoxicology and Pathology, Sylvain De Guise, Kimberlee B. Beckmen, and Steven D. Holladay
Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Environmental Organochlorines on Marine Mammals, Peter J.H. Reijnders
Effects of Environmental Contaminants on the Endocrine System of Marine Mammals, Mary Gregory and Daniel G. Cyr
Opportunities for Environmental Contaminant Research: What Can We Learn from Marine Mammals Under Human Care, Michelle L. Reddy and Sam H. Ridgway
PART II AN OVERVIEW OF CONTAMINATION OF MARINE MAMMALS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
Persistent Ocean Contaminants and Marine Mammals: A Retrospective Overview, Thomas J. O"Shea and Shinsuke Tanabe
Heavy Metals in Marine Mammals, Krishna Das, Virginie Debacker, Stéphane Pillet and Jean-Marie Bouquegneau
Persistent Organic Contaminants in Arctic Marine Mammals, Todd M. O'Hara and Paul R. Becker
Inorganic Pollutants in Arctic Marine Mammals, Todd M. O'Hara, Victoria Woshner, and Gerald Bratton
Impacts of Algal Toxins on Marine Mammals, Frances M. Van Dolah, Gregory J. Doucette, Frances M.D. Gulland, Teri L. Rowles, and Gregory D. Bossart
Toxicology in Sirenians, Thomas J. O'Shea
PART III CETACEANS
Cetaceans and Contaminants, Theo Colborn and Michelle J. Smolen
Pathology of Cetaceans. A Case Study: Beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Daniel Martineau, Igor Mikaelian, Jean-Martin Lapointe, Phillippe Labelle, and Robert Higgins
Immune Status of St. Lawrence Estuary Beluga Whale, Pauline Brousseau, Sylvain De Guise, Isabelle Voccia, S. Ruby, and Michel Fournier
Evaluation of Genotoxic Effects of Environmental Contaminants in Cells of Marine Mammals, with Particular Emphasis on Beluga Whales, J.M. Gauthier, H. Dubeau, and E. Rassart
Mechanisms of Aromatic Hydrocarbon Toxicity: Implications for Cetacean Morbidity and Mortality, Michael J. Carvan III and David L. Busbee
Ecotoxicologic Investigations of Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatas) Strandings: Accumulation of Persistent Organic Chemicals and Metals, John E. Stein, Karen L. Tilbury, James P. Meador, Jay Gorzelany, Graham A.J. Worthy, and Margaret M. Krahn
PART IV PINNIPEDS
Global Temporal Trends of Organochlorines and Heavy Metals in Pinnipeds, Peter J.H. Reijnders and Mark P. Simmonds
Pathology in Baltic Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in Relation to Environmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors, A. Bergman, A, Bignert, and M. Olsson
The Immune System, Chemical Contaminants and Virus-Associated Mass Mortalities Among Pinnipeds, Peter S. Ross, Joseph G. Vos, and Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus
The Effects of Chemical Contaminants on Immune Function in Harbour Seals: Results of a Semi-Field Study, Joseph G. Vos, Peter S. Ross, Rik L. Swart, Henk Van Loveren, and Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus
Immunotoxicology of Free-Ranging Pinnipeds: Approaches to Study Design, Peter S. Ross, Kimberlee B. Beckmen, and Stéphane Pillet
PART V PERSPECTIVES FOR THE FUTURE
Conclusions and Perspectives for the Future, Thomas J. O'Shea, Gregory D. Bossart, Michael Fournier, and Joseph G. Vos
"Toxicology of Marine Mammals serves to … provide an initial introduction to both historical and recent progress and publications for researchers investigating topics outside their field of study. … [The reader] will gain inspiration for future studies . … [W]ell-suited for graduate-level courses …. ."
- Aquatic Mammals, 2004