The investigation of indoor air quality has shown that microbial contamination is often a problem in buildings. Recent evidence indicates that fungi are often a part of the picture. A component of the fungal cell wall, 1®3-ß-glucans not only affect human health, they are a marker for the existence of fungi in environmental samples.
Toxicology of 1®3-ß-Glucans covers the basic chemistry and immunobiology of these substances. The authors begin by introducing current methods for detecting 1®3-ß-glucans in environmental samples and reviewing risk evaluation in the environment. They go on to discuss numerous topics including likely occupational and environmental exposure, studies suggesting a strong link between environmental glucan concentrations and pulmonary inflammation, and signal transduction pathways and specific receptors.
No other book currently available brings together the expertise of leading international researchers to provide a straightforward monograph on the toxicology of 1®3-ß-glucans. It pulls together current knowledge of these compounds, their effects, measurement, monitoring, and risk assessment.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF b-GLUCANS, D. Williams, D. Lowman, and H. Ensley
What are Fungal Glucans?
Physicochemical Characterization of Glucans
Immunobiology of Glucans
Recognition and Binding of Glucans by Membrane Receptors
The Influence of Glucan Polymer Molecular Weight, Structure and Solution Conformation on Binding to (1®3)-ß-D-Glucan Receptors
Glucan Receptors Differentially Recognize Glucan Polymers Based on Solution Conformation and Molecular Weight
Identification of Dectin-1 and Scavenger Receptors as Glucan Specific Membrane Receptors
Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Immunoregulatory Intracellular Signaling Pathways by Glucans
Effect of Glucans on Cytokine and Growth Factor Expression
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Glucans
HEALTH EFFECTS OF (1?3)-?-GLUCAN: THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE, J. Douwes
Human Challenge Studies
The Epidemiological Evidence
Control of (1?3)-ß-D-Glucan Exposure in the Home and Work Environment
(1®3)-b-D-GLUCAN IN THE ENVIRONMENT - A RISK ASSESSMENT, R. Rylander
Animal Inhalation Studies
Human Inhalation Studies
Application to Field Studies
Environmental Risk Evaluation
ANIMAL MODEL OF (1®3)-b-D-GLUCANS-INDUCED PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN RATS, S.-H. Young and V. Castranova
Introduction: Why Study 1®3-b-Glucans?
What is the Cause of Controversy Regarding Glucan-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation Studies?
Important Factors Determining the Biological Activity of 1®3-b-Glucans
Why Choose Zymosan as the Test Glucan in Animal Studies?
Similarities between Symptoms Observed in Workers and Responses in an Animal Model
Parameters Monitored in the Animal Model
Dose-Response Relationship of Zymosan A-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation
Time Course of Recovery from Zymosan A Exposure
Which form of Zymosan, Soluble or Particulate, Causes Greater Inflammation?
Which Conformation of Particulate Zymosan A, Partially Open Triple-Helix vs. Closed Triple-Helix, Induces Greater Pulmonary Inflammation in Rats ?
Conclusions from Zymosan-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation Studies
Pre-Treatment with 1®3-b-Glucans Modifies Endotoxin Response
Conclusion and Need for Developing Methods for Analyzing Insoluble Glucans
b-GLUCANS RECEPTOR(S) AND THEIR SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, Y. Adachi
Soluble b-Glucan Recognition Proteins
1,3-b-Glucan Receptors on the Plasma Membrane of Leukocytes
FATE OF b-GLUCANS IN VIVO, -- ORGAN DISTRIBUTION AND DEGRADATION MECHANISMS OF FUNGAL b-GLUCANS IN THE BODY, N.N. Miura
Study of Organ Distribution Using a Metabolically Labeled form of SSG from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Study of Blood b-Glucan Concentrations Using the Limulus Test
Analysis of Internal Accumulation Using a Metabolically Labeled Form of Candida
Measurement of Amounts of Candida Cells Accumulating in Organs
Relationship Between b-Glucan Dosage and Duration of Antitumor Activity
Solubilization of b-Glucans from Candida Cells
ADJUVANT EFFECTS OF b-GLUCANS IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR ALLERGY, H. Ormstad and G. Hetland
Materials and Methods
ENDOGENOUS SEPTIC SHOCK BY COMBINATION OF b-GLUCAN AND NSAIDS, N. Ohno
Expression of Lethal Toxicity by Concomitant Administration of Microbial Components and NSAIDs
Changes in Inflammatory and Immune Parameters During Concomitant Administration of b-Glucan and Indometacin
Increased Sensitivity to Endotoxin Due to Concomitant Administration of b-Glucan and Indometacin
Effects of Nitric Oxide in the Appearance of Lethal Side Effects Caused by b-Glucans
Strain Differences in Response to b-Glucans
PARTICULATE AND SOLUBLE b-GLUCANS FROM CANDIDA ALBICANS MODULATE CYTOKINE RELEASE FROM HUMAN LEUKOCYTES, K.-I. Ishibashi, Y. Nakagawa, N. Ohno, and T. Murai
Preparation and Biological Activity of Candida Cell Wall b-Glucans
Higher Order Structure of Glucans
Analysis of Gene Expression in Leukocytes Activating Candida Cell Wall b-Glucans Using the DNA Microarray Method
DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT OF (1®3)-b-D-GLUCAN WITH LIMULUS AMEBOCYTE BASED REAGENTS, M. Finkelman and H. Tamura
Structure of (1®3)-b-D-Glucan
Measurement of (1®3)-b-D-Glucan by LAL
(1®3)-b-D-Glucan-Specific Photometric Techniques
Applications of (1®3)-b-D-Glucan-Specific LAL
CLINICAL UTILIZATION OF THE MEASUREMENT OF (1®3)-b-GLUCAN IN BLOOD, T. Obayashi