Although the initial optimism surrounding the so-called New World Order has faded, the importance of moral and ethical values continues to affect political debate throughout the world. In this book, Frances Harbour demonstrates through case studies how people of different moral perspectives can approach the problem of international ethics.She introduces traditional Western perspectives and applies them to cases in U.S. foreign policy history: the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the question of Most Favored Nation trade status for China, and an extended case study of the historical application of ethical reasoning to decisions about chemical arms control from 1925 to 1995. Such case studies allow students to actively observe the role ethical argumentation has played in public debates in the United States throughout the twentieth century. Similarly, the multiple viewpoints on each case allow readers to experience the implications of different frameworks in action.A concise, straightforward introduction to the analysis of ethics and international politics for students in courses such as international relations theory, U.S. foreign policy, national/international security policy, and political theory, the book's main emphasis is on bringing theory and practice together. Both students and practitioners of politics will benefit from reading Thinking About International Ethics by gaining not only a deeper understanding of traditional approaches to ethical reasoning but also by enabling an enhanced tolerance?and perhaps even civility?for the future.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments, Introduction: Ethics, International Affairs, and American Foreign Policy, A Philosophical Map, Examining Cases Through Multiple Lenses, The Plan of This Book, Some Caveats, Notes, For Further Reading, Part I What Role for Ethics in Foreign Policy?, Realism Versus Idealism in the Twentieth Century, Postwar Paradigm Shift or an Interwar Debate?, Order in an Anarchic World, Shades of Realism, Idealism in Exile, Normative Analysis Reemerges, The Study of International Ethics Since the Fall of the Berlin Wall, Notes, For Further Reading, A Closer Look at Realism in the Twentieth Century, Critique of Moralism, Not Morality, The Realist Moral Vision, Neorealism in the Late Twentieth Century, Notes, For Further Reading, Realists, Idealists, and the Politics of Ratifying Chemical Arms Control Treaties in the United States, 1926-1997, Failed Ratification: 1926, Ratifying the Geneva Protocol of 1925: 1969-1975, The Battle for the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, Realism, Idealism, and Chemical Arms Control, Notes, For Further Reading, Part II Ethics, Intentions, and Consequences in Making Foreign Policy, The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945: Events and Moral Questions, Atomic Decisionmaking in World War II: A Summary of Events, Was the Atomic Bombing Necessary to End the War?, Notes, For Further Reading, Consequentialism: Ends Justify the Means, Whose Ends? The State Versus the World, Utilitarians: Cosmopolitan and Consequentialist, Notes, For Further Reading, Consequentialist Evaluations of the U.S. Decision to Use Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Judging the Decision: A Realist Perspective, The Decision to Use Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki: An Act Utilitarian Perspective, How Should an Act Utilitarian Have Made the Decision?, A Dangerous Precedent?, Notes, For Further Reading, Deontological Approaches to International Ethics: Motives, Duties, Rules, and Means, Kant's Moral Theory, Natural Law and the Just War Tradition, Notes, For Further Reading, The Hiroshima Decision and the Just War Tradition, Discrimination, Proportionality, and Double Effect: A Summary, Intended Targets: Groves and the Committees, The President's Position, Stimson: Kyoto, Hiroshima, and Noncombatant Immunity, Intentions of the United States?, Protecting Noncombatants or Innocents?, Notes, For Further Reading, Part Ill Human Rights, Cultural Relativism, and National Duties, The United States, China, and Most Favored Nation Trade Status, Chinese Human Rights Policy in the 1990s, The Politics of MFN Trade Status in the United States, Notes, For Further Reading, The Politics of Most Favored Nation Trade Status for China and the Basis of Rights, China and Cultural Relativism, The Basis of Human Rights: Disagreement at the Heart, Cultural Relativism and MFN Trade Status for China, Human Rights Policy Consistent with Tradition and Culture, Notes, For Further Reading, Moral Theories and the Debate in the U.S. Government on Most Favored Nation Trade Status for China, Moral Theories and Human Rights Policy: A First Cut, Human Rights, International Duties, and Effective Action, The Presidents as Quasi Utilitarians, The Congressional Cauldron, MFN Trade Status for China: Moral Theories and Moral Arguments, Notes, For Further Reading, Conclusion: Moral Theory as a Tool for Analyzing and Evaluating Foreign Policy, Analysis: What Role Do Moral Frameworks Play in Political Decisionmaking?, Advantages and Disadvantages of Realism as a Tool for Evaluating American Foreign Policy Decisions, Advantages and Disadvantages of Utilitarian Thinking as a Tool for Evaluating American Foreign Policy Decisions, Advantages and Disadvantages of Deontological Approaches as Tools for Evaluating American Foreign Policy Decisions, Index