This volume presents contributions given at the international symposium on The Vertebrate Gas Transport Cascade: Adaptations to Environment and Mode of Life, held in São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil from September 10-15, 1991. Recent developments in the field and the unifying principles of basic respiratory mechanisms are covered, and reviews in major areas of respiratory physiology are complemented by recent experimental data. Principal topics discussed include conditions for gas exchange in selected special environments, ventilation of the gas exchanger, diffusing capacity and exchange between respired medium and blood, respiratory pigments and oxygen transport by blood, cardiovascular function and oxygen transport by blood, oxygen delivery to tissue, and transition to anaerobic metabolism.
The Vertebrate Gas Transport Cascade: Adaptations to Environment and Mode of Life will be a useful addition to the reference collections of respiratory physiologists, comparative physiologists, cardiovascular physiologists, experimental biologists, students, and others interested in the topic.
Table of Contents
Dedication. Acknowledgements. Introduction. Participants. Mode of Transmembrane and Transepithelial Ammonia Transfer (N. Heisler). Adaptation of Vertebrates to the Intertidal Environment (C.R. Bridges). Respiratory Metamorphosis during Water-To-Land Transitions in Developing Vertebrates and Invertebrates (W.W. Burggren). Effects of Salinity in Relation to Migration and Development in Fish (F.B. Eddy and Y.-J. Chang). Adaptations of Fishes to Extreme Conditions in Fresh Waters (A.L. Val). The Regulation of Breathing in Aquatic Vertebrates (D.J. Randall). Ventilatory and Respiratory Responses in Fish: Adaptations to the Environment (J.F. Steffensen). Characterization of Ventilatory Patterns in Amphibians (R.G. Boutilier). Effect of the Environment on Ventilation in Reptiles (A.S. Abe). Afferent Inputs Regulating Ventilation in Vertebrates (W.K. Milson). Medium-Blood Gas Exchange: Diffusion, Distribution and Shunt (J. Piiper). Comparing the Effects of Diffusion and Heterogeneity on Vertebrate Gas Exchange (F.L. Powell). Uneven Distribution of Diffusing Capacity: Limiting Role for Gas Exchange (K. Yamaguchi, A. Kawai, M. Mori, K. Asano, T. Takasugi, A. Umeda, T. Kawashiro, and T. Yokoyama). Evolution of the Lung and its Diffusing Capacity (S.F. Perry). Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity of Ectothermic Vertebrates (M.L. Glass). Scaling of Respiratory Variables (K.E. Longworth). Factors Limiting Aerobic Performance (J.H. Jones, E.K. Birks, and J.R. Pascoe). Gas Transport in Lamprey Erythrocytes (M. Nininmaa and R.E. Weber). Functional Properties of Fish Hemoglobins in Erythrocytes and in Solution (A.R. Schwantes, I.B.T. de Lima, and M.L.B. Schwantes). Behavioral Hypothermia of Toads: An Adaptive Stress Response (S.C. Wood and G.M. Malvin). Oxygen Transport in Exercising Horses: Importance of Rheological Properties of Blood (M.R. Fedde, H.H. Ho, and S.C. Wood). Cardiac Output in Fish: Regulation and Limitations (A.P. Farrell). Plasticity of the Heart and Hemodynamic Loads: Basic and Comparative Aspects (B. Tota). The Coronary Circulation in Teleosts and Elasmobranchs: Open Problems (C. Agnisola). Effects of Environmental Oxygen Changes on Cardio-Respiratory Function in Fish (F.T. Rantin). Regulation of Respiratory Organ Blood Flow in Amphibians (G.M. Malvin). Regulation of Intracardiac Shunting in Reptiles: Anatomic vs. Effective Shunting (J.W. Hicks). Energy Demand-Energy Supply Coupling: Efficiency and Adaptability (P.W. Hochachka). Oxidative Metabolism in Hummingbird Flight Muscles (R.K. Suarez). Oxygen Delivery to Tissues: Consequences of Size (J.E.P.W. Bicudo). Oxygen Delivery to the Tissues in Animal Athletes: Keeping up with Demand (S.L. Lindstedt). Unifying Principles in Aerobic Muscle Energetics (K.E. Coley and M.J. Kushmerick). Anaerobic Metabolism in Reptiles (D.C. Jackson). Metabolic Transitions to Anoxia in the Turtle Brain: Role of Neurotransmitters (P.L. Lutz and G. Nilsson). Critical PO2(s) in Oxyconforming and Oxyregulating Animals: Gas Exchange, Metabolic Rate and the Mode of Energy Production (H.O. Pörtner and M.K. Grieshaber). Homeostatic and Microxic Regulation of Respiration in Transitions to Anaerobic Metabolism (E. Gnaiger). Subject Index.