Marxism has been the most pervasive and widespread ideological phenomenon of our times, but seldom, if ever, has it been found in its form. Whenever the Marxist ideology has been historically significant, it has been so as a beneficiary and associate of another set of political beliefs and passions. As a contender for power it seeks to express the dreams and yearnings of societies caught in the painful process of modernization and industrialization. In power it tends to pay lip service to its lofty goals, but associates them with old-fashioned nationalism. Practice does not reflect theory. Ruling elites and parties surpass traditional capitalism in their dedication to political centralization and industrialism at all costs. This revised edition of Adam Ulam's standard work retains the author's summary and critique of Marx's historical, economic, and political arguments. Ulam then examines the relationship of Marxism to other schools of contemporary socialism and to other radical and revolutionary theories. He traces the development of Marxian thought, explains why it has been the potent force in certain societies–while in other societies its influence has been insignificant–and analyzes how Marxism and Leninism have affected the shaping of Russian Communism. Finally Ulam looks at Marxism in the future: the role it will play in the development of the Soviet Union, and how it will affect the contemporary crisis of liberal institutions in the West.
Table of Contents
Preface to the Revised Edition -- Preface to the First Edition -- The Problem -- The Argument -- The Sources and Dynamics of Marxism -- The Diverging Paths: Democracy and Marxism -- The Other Side of Marxism -- The Crisis of Marxism and the Soviet State -- Conclusion