What in the mid-fifties was called Soviet penetration into the Middle East became, by the early seventies, a stronj presence in the region and deep involvement in its affairs. The boundaries of the extension of Soviet influence in this area have not yet crystalized, and the Soviet posture still fluctuates between new gains and sudden setbacks. An international conference, convened at Tel Aviv University in December 1971, attempted to evaluate the extent of the Soviet deployment in the Middle East, the interests motivating it, the dilemmas it is facing, and its impact on local countries. This volume presents most of the papers read at that conference, revised in the light of the conference's deliberations and later developments. It constitutes a major step forward in comprehending the relations of the Soviet Union with the Third World.