As the selection of material for particular engineering properties becomes increasingly important in keeping costs down, methods for evaluating material properties also become more relevant. One such method examines the geometry of grain boundaries, which reveals much about the properties of the material.
Studying material properties from their geometrical measurements, The Measurement of Grain Boundary Geometry provides a framework for a specialized application of electron microscopy for metals and alloys and, by extension, for ceramics, minerals, and semiconductors. The book presents an overview of the developments in the theory of grain boundary geometry and its practical applications in material engineering. It also covers the tunneling electron microscope (TEM), experimental aspects of data collection, data processing, and examples from actual investigations. Each step of the analysis process is clearly described, from data collection through processing, analysis, representation, and display to applications. The book also includes a glossary of terms.
Exploring both the experimental and analytical aspects of the subject, this practical reference guide is essential for researchers and students involved in material properties, whether in physics, materials science, metallurgy, or physical chemistry.
Table of Contents
Significance of grain boundaries in polycrystals
Grain boundary structure and "special" boundaries
Development of techniques for measurement and analysis of grain boundary geometry
Scope of this book
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF GRAIN BOUNDARY GEOMETRY I: GENERAL BOUNDARIES
Grain boundary degrees of freedom
Mathematical characterization of a misorientation
Tilt and twist components
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF GRAIN BOUNDARY GEOMETRY II: PERIODIC GEOMETRIES
The coincidence site lattice
Other models of grain boundary geometry
Multiple junctions in polycrystals
Kikuchi electron diffraction patterns
Data collection in the TEM
Electron back-scatter diffraction in the SEM
DATA INTERPRETATION AND PROCESSING
General procedure for calculating a misorientation
Diffraction pattern analysis to obtain a misorientation
Categorization of grain boundary geometry
Calculation of the normal to the grain boundary plane
DATA REPRESENTATION AND DISPLAY
Stereogram-based space and "special" grain boundary probabilities
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION TO MEASURE GRAIN BOUNDARY GEOMETRY
Survey of grain boundary geometry investigations
Comments on table 7.1 and outlook for the future
"…could not have been prepared at a more appropriate time. … will definitely serve as a major contributor to the industrial implementation of interface engineering by serving as a training text for undergraduate and graduate students and as an extremely useful reference text for industry-based scientists and engineers."
-Dr. G. Palumbo, Research Division, Ontario Hydro
"The huge Table 7.1, which sets out this information in a systematic way, would alone justify purchase of this book! … a most useful practical textbook."
-R.W. Cahn, Contemporary Physics, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1994, pp. 306-307
"… deals with the technical difficulty of describing grain boundary geometry as well as methods of measuring it in considerable detail. … very readable. …"
-Professor B. Cantor, Series Editor