Rich with data available in no other source, this is the first comprehensive study of the allocation of state and public financial resources in the Russian Federation. Working with the Russian Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Economy, the Ministry of Taxes and Duties, and the Russian Statistical Agency, the authors have compiled a dynamic analysis of financial flows between the center and the units of the federation, including both budgetary redistribution and off-budget outlays (e.g., for social insurance and pensions). Among the problems documented in the analysis are the very high differentiation of the regions in terms of levels of development, public welfare, and self-sufficiency; inefficiencies in the taxation system and the prevalence of barter; and the non-transparency of money flows and their role in corruption.
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This book offers an extraordinary interpretation of world history, from the paleolithic era to the present. Renowned historian L.S. Stavrianos conceptualizes human history into three categories: kinship societies, tributary societies, and capitalist societies. In each, he discerns and studies four "life-line" issues - ecology, gender relations, social relations, and war - that encompass the broadest areas of human experience. The revised edition projects forward to the twenty-first century, offering the author's views on possible future scenarios involving the same lifeline issues.