In the last decade biodiversity loss and persistent poverty in developing countries have been recognised as major international problems that require urgent attention. However, the nature and scale of the links between these two problems, and between efforts to address them, has been the subject of much heated debate. Understanding the different elements of this debate is critical if we are to move towards constructive solutions.
This Reader provides a guide to, and commentary on, the different strands of the current conservation-poverty debate through a selection of key readings from both the conservation and development literature including policy documents, journal articles and reports. The breadth of material will help readers, including both students and professionals, to locate current debates within their wider contexts.
Among the areas of debate covered are:
' The lack of attention to biodiversity concerns in international development policy
' The social implications of protectionist conservation policy
' The roles and responsibilities of conservation NGOs towards local communities
' The links between climate change, biodiversity and poverty reduction, and in particular the implication of discussions around reduced emissions from deforestation (REDD) as a climate change mitigation strategy.
Table of Contents
1. Biodiversity Conservation and Poverty Reduction:
An Introduction to the Debate
Part I: Linking Biodiversity Conservation and Poverty Reduction - Where, How and Why?
2. Biodiversity Conservation and the Eradication of Poverty
3.Linking Conservation and Poverty Reduction: Landscapes, People and Power
4. Poverty, Development and Biodiversity Conservation: Shooting in the Dark?
5. Livelihoods, Forests and Conservation in Developing Countries: An Overview
Part II: Conservation's Place in International Development
6. Integrating the Rio Conventions into Development Co-operation
7. Wildlife and Poverty Study
8. Striking a Balance: Ensuring Conservation's Place on the International Biodiversity Assistance Agenda
9. Report of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group of Review of Implementation of the Convention
10. Contested Relationships between Biodiversity Conservation and Poverty Alleviation
11. Poverty and Conservation: The New Century's 'Peasant Question?'
12. Making Poverty Reduction Irreversible: Development Implications of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Part III: Conservation Policy and Protectionism
13. Protected Areas and Poverty - The Linkages and How to Address Them
14. Conservation Policy and Indigenous Peoples
15. The Role of Protected Areas in Conserving Biodiversity and Sustaining Local Livelihoods.
16. Eviction for Conservation: A Global Overview
17. Political Ecology and the Costs and Benefits of Protected Areas
18. A Property Rights Approach to Understanding Human Displacement from Protected Areas: The Case of Marine Protected Areas
Part IV: Conservation NGOs and Poor People
19. Two Agendas on Amazon Development
20. International Conservation Organisations and the Fate of Local Tropical Forest Conservation Initiatives
21. A Challenge to Conservationists
22. Conservation, Development and Poverty Alleviation: Time for a Change in Attitudes
23. Conserving What and for Whom? Why Conservation Should Help Meet Basic Needs in the Tropics
24. Disentangling the Links between Conservation and Poverty Reduction in Practice
Part V: New Developments: Ecosystem Services, Carbon and Climate Change
25. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends
26. Selling Out on Nature (and letters in response)
27. Payments for Environmental Services and the Poor: Concepts and Preliminary Evidence
28. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities
29. Protecting the Future: Carbon, Forests, Protected Areas and Local Livelihoods
30. Seeing REDD? Forests, Climate Change Mitigation the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities
Part VI: Moving Beyond the Debate - The Need for Conservation-poverty Partnerships
31. Partnerships for Conservation and Poverty Reduction
32. Common Ground between Anthropology and Conservation Biology
33. Thinking Like a Human: Social Science and the Two Cultures Problem