Target Assays for Modern Herbicides and Related Phytotoxic Compounds is a laboratory guide that features 38 comprehensive contributions to determine and quantitate the inhibition activity of modern herbicides and related phytotoxic compounds at their targets. Using algal or higher-plant model species as well as cell-free enzymatic systems, assays are described for use with modern equipment typically found in a biochemical laboratory. Many details of the tests described in this volume are being published for the first time.
Assays discussed include carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis and degradation, photosynthetic electron transport, amino acid biosynthesis, fatty acid formation, and cell division. Some model systems and related topics are also described. Each chapter represents an easy-to-read recipe with minimal theory including some key references for further reading. Original data from the experiments are provided, and most of the notable laboratories around the world are represented.
Target Assays for Modern Herbicides and Related Phytotoxic Compounds features updated methodology and procedures that will be a tremendous asset to plant biochemists; agriculture, plant protection, and weed control experts; agrochemical herbicide specialists in industry and government; and students in agricultural biochemistry and physiology.
Table of Contents
Pigment Biosynthesis and Degradation: Spectral Determination of Carotenoid Precursors in Scenedesmus Cells Treated with Bleaching Herbicides (G. Sandmann). Detection of Bleaching by Benzoyl Cyclohexanediones in Cress Seedlings by HPLC Separation and Determination of Carotenoids (G. Sandmann). In Vitro Assay System for Phytoene Desaturase Inhibitors with Isolated Thylakoids (G. Sandmann). Glutamate 1-Semialdehyde Aminotransferase as a Target for Herbicides (S.P. Gough, C.G. Kannangara, and D. von Wettstein). Fluorometric Assay of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase in Chloroplasts and in Plant, Yeast, and Mammalian Mitochondria (J.-M. Camadro, M. Matringe, R. Scalla, and P. Labbe). Inhibition of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase From Maize (B. Nicolaus, G. Sandmann, and P. Böger). Short-term Formation of Protoporphyrin-IX in Scenedesmus using Cyclic Imide Analogs (H. Watanabe, G. Sandmann, K. Wakabayashi, and P. Böger). Ethane Formation by Peroxidative Herbicides (P. Böger and B. Nicolaus). Peroxidizing Activity Determined by Cellular Leakage (S.O. Duke and W.H. Kenyon). PhotoSynthetic Electron Transport: A Simple Fluorometric Detection of Photosystem II Inhibitors (H.M. Gleiter and G. Renger). In Vivo Measurements of Cytochrome f and the P515 Response (S.O. Duke). Inhibition of the Photosynthetic Electron Transport System (P. Böger). Binding of Herbicides at the D 1 Protein of the Photosynthetic Electron Transport System. (A. Thiel and P. Böger). Amino Acid Biosyntheses: Irreversible Inhibition of Glutamine Synthetase from Higher Plants by the Herbicide Phosphinothricin (R. Manderscheid). The Buckwheat Assay for Glyphosate and other Inhibitors of Aromatic Biosynthesis (N. Amrhein and P. Roy). EPSP Synthase: Isolation and Assay (N. Amrhein). Investigations on Herbicidal Acetolactate Synthase Inhibitors using Valine-Sensitive and Valine-Insensitive Escherichia coli Strains (P. Babczinski). Assay of Acetolactate Synthase from Higher Plants (J. Durner, V. Gailus). Ketol-Acid Reductoisomerase from Plants: Extraction and Enzymatic Assay (J. Durner, P. Weiss, O. Knörzer and P. Böger). Screening of Inhibitors (Antimetabolites) of the Biosynthesis or Function of Amino Acids or Vitamins with a Lemna Assay (R. Chollet). Fatty Acid Formation: Assay of Plant Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase and its Specific Inhibition by Some Graminicides (H.K. Lichtenthaler and M. Focke). Activity and Inhibition of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Determined by HPLC ( G. Paul). A Novel Procedure for Measurement of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase in Comparison with the 14CO2 Fixation Method (J.L.Howard and S.M. Ridley). Changes of Fatty-Acid Profile Induced by Herbicides (M. Couderchet). Inhibition of Cell Division: Components of Plant Growth and its Measurement (F.D. Hess and T.L. Rost). Analysis of the Mitotic Index in Root Tip Meristems as a Tool to Determine Herbicide Cell Cycle Specificity (T.L. Rost and F.D. Hess). Estimates of Cell Cycle Duration in Meristems of Herbicide-Treated Plants (T.L. Rost and F.D. Hess). Analysis of Cell Elongation as a Tool to Determine Herbicide Effects on Plant Growth (F.D. Hess and T.L. Rost). Immunofluorescence Microscopy of Tubulin to Determine Phytotoxin Effects on the Plant Cytoskeleton (T.D. Sherman and K.C. Vaughn). Immunoblotting Protocol for the Characterization of Cytoskeletal Proteins Associated with Mitotic Disrupter Herbicides (T.D. Sherman and K.C. Vaughn). Model Species and Miscellaneous Topics: Inhibition of Plasma Membrane ATPase (J.-P. Blein and M.L. Milat). Assays of Xenobiotics on Respiratory Activities in Isolated Plant Mitochondria (P. Ravanel and M. Tissut). Rooting and Algal Tests for Herbicide Mode of Action Studies (C. Fedtke). Growth Rate Determination of Lemna by Video Scan of the Leaf Surface Urea (G. Retzlaff). The Paraquat Bioassay to Evaluate Photosyntheses Inhibition (D. Yanase and A. Andoh). The Starch Assay in Leaf Segments (T. Kida and H. Shibai). Screening for Growth Retardants and Herbicides (Conductivity Measurement) with Heterotrophic Plant Cell Suspension Cultures (K. Grossmann). Screening of Peroxidizers that Cause an Accumulation of Photosensitive Tetrapyrroles (Qualitative Lemna assay) (R. Chollet).