Includes developments in the understanding of the biochemical changes involved in yoghurt production
Outlines significant technological advances in mechanization and automation
Discusses the nutritional value of yoghurt
Provides a unique and essential reference for researchers and manufacturers in the dairy industry
Completely revised and updated, this third edition combines coverage of recent developments in scientific understanding with information about established best practices. It covers polysaccharide production by starter culture bacteria and its effects on gel structure, acid gel formation, and advances in the analysis of yoghurt in terms of its chemistry, rheology, and microbiology. The book explores advanced technology such as automation and mechanization and details of clinical trials involving yoghurts. The new edition also discusses the new definition of the term yoghurt and the larger variety of gelled or viscuous fermented milk products containing a wide range of cultures.
Table of Contents
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Introduction Evolution of the Process Diversity of Fermented Milks Patterns of Consumption Methods of Production and Classification References
BACKGROUND TO MANUFACTURING PRACTICE Introduction Preliminary Treatment of the Milk Base Standardization of the Solids-not-Fat Content in Milk Addition of Stabilizers/Emulsifiers Addition of Sweetening Agents Addition of Miscellaneous Compounds Homogenization Heat Treatment Fermentation Process Cooling Addition of Fruit/Flavouring/Colouring Ingredients Packaging Refrigerated Cold Storage, Transport, and Distribution Conclusion References
PROCESSING PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT Home or Small-Scale Production Medium-Scale Production Large-Scale Production Mechanization of Yoghurt Production and Plant Design Continuous Yoghurt Production Automation/Process Control Building Design, Maintenance, and Services Conclusion References
PLANT CLEANING, HYGIENE, AND EFFLUENT TREATMENT CLEANING ASPECTS Primary Aspects Principles of the Cleaning Process Factors Involved in the Selection and Performance of a Detergent Cleaning Methods Factors Influencing the Efficiency of Cleaning Specific Cleaning and Sterilization Operations of Yoghurt Processing Equipment and Utensils Fundamentals of the Sterilization Process Methods of Sterilization and/or Sanitation Kinetics and Mechanisms of Microbial Destruction Means of Assessing the Sanitary Condition of the Processing Plant Background Nature of Pollution Methods of Effluent Treatment References
TRADITIONAL AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN YOGHURT PRODUCTION AND RELATED PRODUCTS Introduction Standard Commercial Yoghurt Yoghurt Made from Different Mammalian Milks Pasteurized/UHT/Long-Life/Heat Shock Yoghurt Drinking Yoghurt Lactose Hydrolyze Yoghurt (LHY) Concentrated/Strained Yoghurt Frozen Yoghurt Dried Yoghurt Health-Promoting Yoghurt Fat-Substitutes Yoghurt Vegetable Oil Yoghurt w-3 Enriched Yoghurt Chemically Acidified Yoghurt Soy-Milk Yoghurt Transglutaminase (Tg-ase) Yoghurt Miscellaneous Yoghurt Products Future Developments and Conclusion References
MICROBIOLOGY OF YOGHURT AND RELATED STARTER CULTURES Introduction Characteristics of Growth Factors Causing Slow Growth of Starter Cultures Conclusion References
BIOCHEMISTRY OF FERMENTATION Introduction Carbohydrate Metabolism Protein Metabolism Lipid/Fat Metabolism Vitamin Metabolism Miscellaneous Changes References
PRESERVATION AND PRODUCTION OF STARTER CULTURES Introduction Methods of Starter Culture Preservation Technology of Cell Biomass Production Production Systems of Starter Cultures Developments in Inoculation Systems Conclusion References
NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF YOGHURT Introduction Carbohydrates Protein Lipids Vitamins and Minerals Nutritional Additives Yoghurt and Health Conclusion References
QUALITY CONTROL IN YOGHURT MANUFACTURE Introduction Principles of HACCP Aspects of Verification Monitoring the Process Plant Examination of Raw Materials Quality Appraisal of the Retail Product Conclusion References
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