Surviving Hypoxia: Mechanisms of Control and Adaptation is a synthesis of findings and thoughts concerning hypoxia. The thermodynamics of hypoxia are discussed in detail, including acid-base balance and self-pollution resulting from the accumulation of anaerobic end-products. The book focuses on descriptions and discussions of common facets, contrasting solutions in a variety of physiological hypoxia defense strategies, including those shown by plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Special treatment is given to the distinctive problems that hypoxia presents to vulnerable organs such as the kidney, liver, and brain. It also addresses pathological events in addition to protective mechanisms.
Clinical implications of basic research are examined in the book, which provides new insights into underlying pathological processes occuring in hypoxic-induced organ failure and indicates new paths for successful clinical intervention. Surviving Hypoxia: Mechanisms of Control and Adaptation is an excellent reference for all researchers interested in the physiological effects of hypoxia, underlying pathological events, and protective mechanisms.
Table of Contents
Volume Overview: Defense and Adaptational Strategies (P.W. Hochachka, P.L. Lutz, T. Sick, M. Rosenthal, and G. van den Thillart). ADVANTAGEOUS BIOCHEMICAL PATHWAYS. BIOENERGETIC ADVANTAGES. Intracellular Reactions Controlling Environmental Anaerobiosis in the Marine Annelid Arenicola marina, a Fresh Look at Old Pathways (G. Kamp). Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy Metabolism in the Life Cycle of Parasitic Helminths (A.G.M. Tielens and S.G. van den Bergh). Energy Metabolism of Invertebrate Erythrocytes: Anaerobic Metabolism of Blood Clams (A. de Zwaan and P. Cortesi). Rice and Wheat Seedlings as Plant Models of High and Low Tolerance to Anoxia (F. Menegus, L. Cattaruzza, H. Molinari, and E. Ragg). In Vivo Proton NMR of the Brain (W.M.M.J. Bovee, J. van Dijk, H. Slotboom, D. Bosman, and R.A.F.M. Chamuleau). EFFICIENCY ADVANTAGES. Efficiency and Power Strategies Under Hypoxia. Is Low Efficiency at High Glycolitic ATP Production a Paradox? (E. Gnaiger). Effects of Thyroid Hormone on the Energetic Efficiency of Muscle Contraction (C. van Hardeveld and W.S. Simonides). Adaptability of Metabolic Efficiencies Under Chronic Hypoxia in Man (P.W. Hochachka). pH ADVANTAGES. Multicompartmental Analyses of Acid-Base and Metabolic Homeostasis during Anaerobiosis: Invertebrate and Lower Vertebrate Examples (H-O Portner). Ethanol Formation and pH Regulation in Fish (A. van Waarde, G. van den Thillart, and M. Verhagen). pHi and Anabolic Arrest during Anoxia in Artemia franciscana Embryos (S.H. Hand). Interaction between Cytoplasmic Fermentation Reactions and Transport of Protons between Cytoplasm and Vacuoles (J.K.M. Roberts). pH and Metabolic Depression in Mammalian Hibernation. The Example of Brown Adipose Tissue (A. Malan). HYPOXIA DEFENSE AND CONTROL SYSTEMS. Environmental and Exercise Anaerobiosis in Frogs (G. Wegener and U. Krause). The Role of Metabolic Acidosis in the Buffering of ATP by Phosphagen Stores in Fish: An In Vivo NMR Study (G. van den Thillart and A. van Waarde). Molecular Mechanisms of Metabolic Arrest in Molluscs (K.B. Storey). Inhibition of Protein Synthesis in Isolated Hepatocytes as an Immediate Response to Oxygen Limitation (P. Buc-Calderon, V. Lefebvre, and M. van Steenbrugge). Control of Metabolic Rate by Multienzyme Complexes: Is Glycolysis in Hypoxia and Anoxia Regulated by Complex Formation? (S.P.J. Brooks and K.B. Storey). Control of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Liver Mitochondria and Cells: Top-Down Control Analysis and Top-Down Elasticity Analysis (M.D. Brand). Modulation of Cardiac Mammalian Contractility by High Energy Phosphate Depletion and Creatine Kinase Activity (J.A. Hoerter and R. Ventura-Clapier). Regulation of Oxygen Uptake in Oxygen-Rich Periportal and Oxygen-Poor Pericentral Regions of the Liver Lobule by Oxygen Tension (R.G. Thurman, Y. Nakagawa, T. Matsumura, J.J. Lemasters, U.K. Misra, and F.C. Kaufman). Metabolism-Perfusion Relationships in Mammalian Skeletal Muscle (W.N. Stainsby, D.M. O'Drobinak, W.F. Brechue, and J.K. Barclay). MEMBRANE-METABOLISM INTERFACE. Maintaining Coupled Metabolism and Membrane Function in Anoxic Brain: A Comparison between the Turtle and Rat (T.J. Sick, M. Perez-Pinzon, P.L. Lutz, and M. Rosenthal). Membrane Current Activation and Inactivation during Hypoxia in Hippocampal Neurones (K. Krjnevic). Anoxic CNS Membrane: Mechanisms of Collapse and Stabilization (C.J. Doll). Neurotransmitters and Anoxia Resistance: Comparative Physiological and Evolutionary Perspectives (G.E. Nilsson). INTEGRATED SYSTEMS. Hypoxia and Post Hypoxic Recovery in Insects: Physiological and Metabolic Aspects (G. Wegener). Hypoxia Tolerance in Amazon Fishes: Status of an Under-Explored Biological "Goldmine" (V.M.F. Almedia-Val, A.L. Val, and P.W. Hochachka). Metabolic Size Allometry and the Limits to Beneficial Metabolic Reduction: Hypothesis of a Uniform Specific Minimal Metabolic Rate (D. Singer, F. Bach, H.J. Bretschneider, and H.L. Kuhn). Hypoxia Defense Mechanisms: A Comparison between Diving Reptile and Mammals (P.L. Lutz and P.W. Hochachka). RECOVERY. Structural Effects of Intracellular Amino Acids during ATP Depletion (M.J. Venkatachalam and J.M. Weinberg). Reperfusion Injury to Heart and Liver Cells: Protection by Acidosis during Ischemia and a "pH Paradox" after Reperfusion (J.J. Lemasters, J.M. Bond, R.T. Currin, A-L. Neiminen, J.C. Calder-Kenkel, D.C. Harrison, S.H. Kaplan, W.E. Cascio, R.J. Thurman, G.J. Gores, and B. Herman). Formation of Free Radicals under Hypoxia (J.M. Rifkind, O. Abugo, A. Levy, R. Monticone, and J. Heim). Burst Exercise Recovery Metabolism in Fish White Muscle (C.D. Moyes, P.M. Schule, and T.G. West). VOLUME SUMMARY. The Technology Transfer Issue: From Hypoxia Research to the Clinical Researcher (P.W. Hochachka, P.L. Lutz, T. Sick, M. Rosenthal, and G. van den Thillart).