In spite of the growing importance of Species Sensitivity Distribution models (SSDs) in ecological risk assessments, the conceptual basis, strengths, and weaknesses of using them have not been comprehensively reviewed. This book fills that need. Written by a panel of international experts, Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology reviews the current SSD methods from all angles, compiling for the first time the variety of contemporary applications of SSD-based methods.
Beginning with an introduction to SSDs, the chapter authors review the issues surrounding SSDs, synthesizing the positions of advocates and critics with their own analysis of each issue. Finally, they discuss the prospects for future development, paving the way for improved future uses. In sum, this book defines the field of SSD modeling and application. It reveals a lively field, with SSD-applications extending beyond legally adopted quality criteria to other applications such as Life-Cycle Analysis.
For anyone developing or revising environmental criteria or standards, this book explores the pros and cons of using the SSD approach. For anyone who needs to apply and interpret SSD-based criteria or standards, the book explains the basis for the numbers, thereby making it possible to correctly apply and defend them. For anyone performing ecological risk assessments, the book covers when and how to use SSDs including alternative assumptions, data treatments, computational methods, and available resources. Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology provides you with a clear picture of these standard models for estimating ecological risks from laboratory toxicity data.
Table of Contents
General Introduction to Species Sensitivity Distributions, L. Posthuma, T.P. Traas, and G.W. Suter II
North American History of Species Sensitivity Distributions, G. W. Suter II
European History of Species Sensitivity Distributions, N. M. van Straalen, K. J. van Leeuwen
Theory of Ecological Risk Assessment Based on Species Sensitivity Distributions, Nico M. van Straalen
Normal Species Sensitivity Distributions and Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment, T. Aldenberg, J. S. Jaworska, and T. P. Traas
Extrapolation Factors for Tiny Toxicity Data Sets from Species Sensitivity Distributions with Known Standard Deviation, T. Aldenberg and R. Luttik
Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecological Risk Assessment: Distributional Assumptions, Alternate Bootstrap Techniques, and Estimation of Adequate Number of Species, M. C. Newman, D. R. Ownby, L. C.A. Mézin, D. C. Powell, T. R.L. Christensen, S. B. Lerberg, B.-A. Anderson, and T. V. Padma
Observed Regularities in SSDs for Aquatic Species, D. de Zwart
The Value of the Species Sensitivity Distribution Concept for Predicting Field Effects: (Non-)Confirmation of the Concept Using Semi-Field Experiments, P. J. Van den Brink, T. C.M. Brock and L. Posthuma
Effects Assessment of Fabric Softeners: The DHTDMAC-Case, K. J. van Leeuwen, J. Jaworska
Use of Species Sensitivity Distributions in the Derivation of Water Quality Criteria for Aquatic life by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, C. E. Stephan
Environmental Risk Limits in the Netherlands, D. T.H.M. Sijm, A. P. van Wezel, and T. Crommentuijn
A Rank-Based Approach to Deriving Canadian Soil and Sediment Quality Guidelines, C. Gaudet, D. Bright, K. Adare, and K. Potter
Ecotoxicological Soil Quality Criteria in Denmark, J. J. Scott-Fordsmand, and J. Jensen
Probabilistic Risk Assessment Using Species Sensitivity Distributions, K.R. Solomon and P. Takacs
The Potentially Affected Fraction as a Measure of Ecological Risk, T. P. Traas, D. Van de Meent, L. Posthuma, T. H.M. Hamers, B. J. Kater, D. de Zwart, and T. Aldenberg
Methodology for Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment, W. J. Warren-Hicks, B. R. Parkhurst, and J. B. Butcher
Toxicity-Based Assessment of Water Quality, D. de Zwart and A. Sterkenburg
Mapping Risks of Heavy Metals to Birds and Mammals Using Species Sensitivity Distributions, T. P. Traas, R. Luttik, and H. Mensink
Ecotoxicological Impacts in Life Cycle Assessment, M. Huijbregts, D. van de Meent, M. Goedkoop, and R. Spriensma
Issues and Practices in the Derivation and Use of Species Sensitivity Distributions, G. W. Suter II, T. P. Traas, and L. Posthuma
Conceptual and Technical Outlook on Species Sensitivity Distributions, L. Posthuma, T. P. Traas, D. de Zwart, and G. W. Suter II
Appendix A: The Interactive Poster Session "Use of Species Sensitivity Distributions in Ecotoxicology", T. H.M. Hamers, T. P. Traas, and L. Posthuma
Appendix B: List of programs
"This book is an exciting addition to the risk analysis literature...The concepts behind this book are a real conceptual leap forward...I highly recommend this stimulating book. Forget the equations; stand back and view these ideas from afar. Let the larger implications penetrate your mind."