The broad aim of this book is to provide a general basis for comparatively analysing and understanding the French riots of October/November 2005 and the corresponding Bristish disorders which occurred in the spring/summer of 2001. The first of the French riots broke out on 27 October in the north Parisian banlieue (suburb) of Clichy-sous-Bois when two teenage youths of Muslim heritage were electrocuted in a substation while fleeing from the police. The two youths had apparently become unwittingly involved, together with their friends, in a police investigation of a break-in. It is not clear whether they had actually been chased by police officers. Nevertheless, a rumor to this effect quickly circulated the locality, provoking violent confrontation between youths and police. Three more weeks of rioting then ensued in neighbouring Parisian suburbs and other major French cities with similar concentrations of ethnic minorities. The riots invariably involved thousands of youths from poorer areas who confronted the police, set fire to local buildings and ignited hundreds of motor vehicles. Further rioting - though not on the same scale as in 2005 - occurred subsequently in 2006 and 2007. England and Wales have had their own counterparts to the French riots. In the early and mid 1980s, there were a number of clashes between police and African-Caribbean youths in inner-city areas. Further, in 2001 rioting broke out in the northern mill towns and cities of Bradford, Burnley, Leeds and Oldham. All of these later instances involved youths from Pakistani or Bangladeshi descent. In contrast to the riots that occurred in France though, a contributing factor to 2001 riots was the activities of white neo-Fascists. Many official reports and academic studies followed each wave of disorder, each questioning the effectiveness of Britain's 'multicultural' society, in addition to other possible factors such as the marginalisation and 'criminalisation' of minority ethnic youth, and their relations with the police. Such issues were again on the agenda after more rioting occurred in the Lozells area of Birmingham in 2005. Unlike the previous disorders, this entailed conflict between South Asian and African-Caribbean youths, following a rumor that a young African girl had been gang-raped by South Asians. British attempts to analyse and remedy the underlying causes of the riots constitute a potentially valuable resource to French academics, practitioners and policy makers. In turn, the French experience provides a fertile basis for re-applying, testing and enhancing existing British theory and policy. The book consists of a highly coherent, theoretically rich and thematically comprehensive collection of papers which provide an unparalleled description and comparative analysis of the French and British riots, along with social policy recommendations to help to address the underlying issues.
Table of Contents
Contents Part I: Setting the Scene 1 Introduction and overview: the British and French riots, David Waddington (Sheffield Hallam University), Mike King (Birmingham City University) and Fabien Jobard (CESDIP-CNRS, Paris) 2 Theoretical orientations: lessons of UK riots of the 1980s and 1990s, David Waddington and Mike King 3 An overview of French Riots: 1981-2004, Fabien Jobard Part II: The British Riots, 2001-2005 4 Local events, national implications: riots in Oldham and Burnley 2001, Virinder Kalra and James Rhodes (University of Leeds) 5 Police on the line: between control and correctness in multi-ethnic contexts of urban unrest, Janet Bujra and Jenny Pearce (University of Bradford) 6 The Bradford 'riot' of 2001: the diversity of action, Yasmin Hussain and Paul Bagguley (Leeds University) 7 From petrol bombs to performance indicators: the 2001 riots and the emergence of 'community cohesion', Paul Thomas (University of Huddersfield) 8 From rumor to riot: the 2005 Lozells disorders, Mike King Part III: The French Riots, 2001-2005 9 The French riots and urban segregation, Hugues Lagrange (OSC-CNRS) 10 Urban renewal = riot revival? The role of urban renewal policy in the French riots Renaud Epstein (GAPP-CNRS) 11 Riots and protest cycles: immigrant mobilisation in France 1968-2008, Camille Hamidi (TRIANGLE-CNRS,UniversitÃ© Lyon-2) 12 The political dimension of the 2005 riots, Michel Kokoreff (CESAMES-CNRS, UniversitÃ© Paris-5) 13 Youth gangs, riots and the politicisation process, Marwan Mohamed (CESDIP-CNRS) 14 The French police and urban riots: is the national police force part of the solution or part of the problem? Christian Mouhanna (CESDIP-CNRS) 15 The 2007 presidential election and the 2005 urban violence in French deprived urban areas, Christine Fauvelle-Aymar (CEPEL-CNRS, UniversitÃ© Montpellier), Abel FranÃ§ois (Starsbourg University) and Patricia Vornetti (University of Paris-1) Part IV: Other International Comparisons 16 A North American example: The 2001 Cincinnati riot and a subsequent peacemaking initiative, David Waddington 17 Why are there no riots in Germany? Mutual perceptions between police forces and minority adolescents, Tim Lukas (Max-Planck-Institute FÃ¼r Strafrecht, Freiburg) Part V: Conclusions 18 Conclusions, Fabien Jobard, Mike King and David Waddington References Index