Racism, racial equity, and the race-place connections related to racial inequalities in the U.S. are the major themes of this book. The long history of U.S. White racism toward Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians is deeply rooted in the political, socioeconomic, and intellectual frameworks of America, permitting racial inequities to become expressed as cultural landscapes?the places where many racial minorities exist. The contemporary geographic patterns of segregation and isolation are different from those of earlier U.S. history, but are equally damning and present extremely difficult challenges for social action in a nation that will change its racial/ethnic composition dramatically during the current generation.As America changes over the next quarter century, the visible and invisible race-place inequalities that help define U.S. urban geography will continue in housing, education, employment, travel requirements, shopping choices, environmental hazards, and other living conditions. Minority groups, ever increasing in numbers, will find inequalities unacceptable. How America deals with racial inequalities will likely have consequences for all its citizens.
Table of Contents
"List of Tables and Figures, List of Acronyms, Acknowledgments, Race, Ethnicity, and Locational Inequalities: Introduction, Race and Ethnicity, Equity and Racial Disparities, Outline of the Book, U.S. Minority Population: Settlement Patterns, Dispersion, and Growth Trends, Minority Population Settlement and Dispersion, Projected Growth of American Minorities, Implications for Research and Policy, Sociological Narratives of Racism in America, Diversity of Perspectives, A Historical Context for U.S. Racism, Summary, Theories of Spatial Relationships in Urban America, Background to Theoretical Discussions, Part 1: The Free-Market Technological View, Part II: A Postmodern-Marxist Explanation of Urban Growth and Restructuring, Minority and Nonminority Concentrations: Differentiating Between Race-and-Place-Based Inequalities in Urban America, Introduction, Segregation, Minority Equity Issues, Changing Minority Concentrations: The Growth of Hispanic Populations and Black-Hispanic Settlement Patterns, Differences Between Minority Concentrations and White-Majority Urban Subregions: An Empirical Analysis, Summary, Deconstruction of Emerging Racial Mosaics: Equity Issues Where Asian, Americans Mix with Other Minorities in Alameda County, California, Introduction, Increasing Racial Diversity: Some Trends and Issues in Southern California, The Making of a Racial Mosaic: Alameda County, California, Equity Issues in a Multiracial Environment, Indicators of Environmental Inequities and Threats to Minority Health in Urban America, Introduction, A Conceptual Model of Environmental Equity Research, Evidence of Inequitable Outcomes in Monroe and Suffolk Counties, New York, Summary, Retail Structure, Accessibility, and Inequalities in Areas of Minority Concentration, Introduction, Urban Restructuring and the Location of Selected Retail Functions, Retail Distributions: Defining and Formulating ""Accessibility"", Accessibility and Equity, Future Retailing in Inner Cities, Commuting and Locational Access to Employment in Urban America: Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Three Cities, Commuting and Employment: The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis, Commuting and Access to Employment, Descriptive Summary Data on the Study Areas, Intersection of Transportation, Race, and Place: Detroit, Wayne County, Summary and Conclusions, Discussion and Policy Implications for Areas of Minority Concentrations, Racial Inequalities in Urban America: Retrospect and Prospect, Introduction, Establishing Racial Equity and Social Change in America: Some Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, Racial Equity and Social Change: Prospects, Challenges, and Hope, Appendix: Sample Urban Counties Used in the Analysis, References, Index