This volume presents information regarding the mechanisms of protein absorption under normal and pathologic conditions, in addition to reviewing changes that occur at various stages of life. General modifiers of intestinal absorption, such as the processing of foods, the nutritional status of the individual, and disease, are explored with reference to both proteins and minerals. Inorganic macronutrients, namely calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, are discussed in relation to protein ingestion. The book also explores the concept of essential trace elements (e.g., iron, zinc, copper, and iodine) and their link to protein sufficiency. The relationship of ultratrace elements with the content of proteins in food is examined, and the book offers a fresh view of the role of certain elements, particularly zinc, on the conformation of proteins linked to DNA, hormone receptors, and gene products. Protein Nutrition and Mineral Absorption is packed with 2,300 references, 100 figures and graphs, plus 25 tables. Nutritionists and physicians will find this book to be an invaluable reference source for rationalizing nutritional interventions and diet modifications for their patients.
Table of Contents
MECHANISMS OF PROTEIN ABSORPTION. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. AMINO ACID VS. OLIGOPEPTIDE ABSORPTION. SMALL PEPTIDES AS THE MAJOR SUBSTRATES OF PROTEIN ABSORPTION. ABSORPTION OF INTACT PROTEINS. REFERENCES. EFFECT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND DISEASE ON PROTEIN ABSORPTION. INTRODUCTION. EFFECT OF PROTEIN DEFICIENCY ON AMINO ACID AND OLIGOPEPTIDE ABSORPTION. DIETARY AND METABOLIC REGULATION OF AMINO ACID ABSORPTION. ABSORPTION OF INTACT PROTEINS IN NUTRITIONAL DEPRIVATION. EFFECT OF MATERNAL PROTEIN RESTRICTION ON NEONATAL PROTEIN ABSORPTION. ABSORPTION OF PROTEIN IN ACQUIRED DISEASE. General Considerations. Celiac Disease (Sprue). Renal Disease. ABSORPTION OF PROTEIN IN CONGENITAL DISEASE. General Considerations. Cystinuria. Familial Protein Intolerance. Hyperdibasic Aminoaciduria. Neutral Amino Acid Malabsorption Syndromes. Iminoglycinuria. Lowe's Syndrome. Congenital Agammaglobulinemia. Peptiduria Associated with Aminopeptidase-P Deficiency. REFERENCES. DEVELOPMENTAL FACTORS IN PROTEIN AND MINERAL ABSORPTION. INTRODUCTION. ONTOGENY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Morphology. Development of the Gastrointestinal Mucosal Barrier. Membrane Composition and Rheologic Properties. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTEIN ABSORPTION MECHANISMS. Enzymatic Ontogeny. The Mammalian Intestine. Ontogeny of Human Protein Absorptive Mechanisms. Ontogeny of Amino Acid and Dipeptide Absorptive Mechanisms. Hormonal Control of Enzymatic Maturation. Role of Diet in the Development of Intestinal Absorptive Function. ONTOGENY OF MINERAL ABSORPTION. General Considerations. Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus. Iron. Zinc and Copper. Other Elements. PROTEIN AND MINERAL ABSORPTION LATE IN LIFE. Protein. Minerals. REFERENCES. EFFECT OF FOOD SOURCES AND PROCESSING ON PROTEIN AND MINERAL ABSORPTION. GENERAL. IMPORTANCE OF FOOD SOURCES. PHYSICAL TREATMENTS. Milling, Polishing, and Other Mechanical Processes. Heating. Cooking. Dehydration. Water Extraction. Leaching. Washing. Freezing/Thawing. Osmotic Alteration. Storage (Aging). Packaging. Emulsification, Homogenization, Gellification. CHEMICAL TREATMENTS. Oxidation, Reduction. Schiff Base Formation. Maillard Reactions. Browning. Acidification. Alkalinization. Sequestration. Natural Chelating Agents. Chemical Processing with Macro-Additives: Salt, Curing. REFERENCES. CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND PHOSPHORUS ABSORPTION, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND EFFECT OF PROTEINS. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF CALCIUM ABSORPTION. Calcium in Foods and Its Bioavailability. Mucosal Receptors at the Brush Border Mucosa. Transcellular Transport of Calcium. Effects of Protein Nutrition on Calcium Metabolic Balance. Protein-Calcium-Phosphorus Interactions. Osteoporosis. Overview of Calcium-Protein-Phosphate Interactions. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS AND MECHANISMS OF MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION. Magnesium Requirements and Absorption. Protein-Energy Malnutrition and Magnesium Sufficiency. Studies Relating Protein and Magnesium Absorption and Sufficiency. Magnesium and Calcium Imbalances in Metabolic Disease. PHOSPHATE ABSORPTION, CATION BALANCE REGULATION, AND PROTEIN INTAKE. Dietary Phosphate and Intestinal Absorptive Mechanisms. The Phosphate-Calcium-Protein Connection. REFERENCES. NUTRITIONAL FACTORS, PROTEINS, AND THE ABSORPTION OF IRON AND COBALT. IRON CHEMISTRY AND DETERMINANTS OF THE SOLUBILITY OF THE ELEMENT. FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF IRON. Luminal Factors. Mucosal Factors. Corporeal Factors. PROTEIN DERIVED PRODUCTS AND IRON ABSORPTION. Historical Background. Animal Proteins. Amino Acids. Peptides. PROTEIN NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND INTERACTIONS WITH IRON ABSORPTION. DEFECTS IN THE INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF IRON. Idiopathic Hemochromatosis. Iron Malabsorption. PROTEIN AND NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN THE ABSORPTION OF COBALT. Cobalt as a Possible Essential Trace Element. Essentiality of Cobalt and Cobalamines. Absorption of Vitamin B12 and of Cobalt. Attempts at Pharmacologic Uses of Cobalt. Toxicity of Cobalt. REFERENCES. ZINC ABSORPTION AND SUFFICIENCY AS AFFECTED BY PROTEIN AND OTHER NUTRIENTS. SIGNIFICANCE OF ZINC AS AN ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT. Requirements of Zinc by Vegetables and in the Animal Kingdom. Role of Zinc in Biological Processes. FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF ZINC. Luminal and Dietary Factors. Mucosal Factors. Corporeal Factors. PROTEIN-DERIVED PRODUCTS AND ZINC ABSORPTION. Introduction. Amino Acids. Peptides. Proteins. ZINC MALABSORPTION. Congenital Conditions. Acquired Malabsorption. REFERENCES. COPPER ABSORPTION AND BODY DISTRIBUTION: ROLE OF PROTEIN AND OTHER NUTRIENTS. ROLE OF COPPER IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. Biological Roles of Copper. MECHANISMS FOR THE LUMINAL REMOVAL OF COPPER AND TISSUE DISTRIBUTION. Transport Across Membranes. FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF COPPER. Ecological and Geographical Considerations. Luminal Factors. Mucosal Factors. Somatic Factors. PROTEIN-DERIVED PRODUCTS AND COPPER ABSORPTION. Amino Acid Participation in Copper Transport Mechanisms. Effect of Proteins and Protein Breakdown Products. INTERACTION OF OTHER ELEMENTS ON COPPER ABSORPTION. Inhibition of Copper Absorption by Zinc. Copper-Zinc Imbalance, Cholesterol, and Chronic Degenerative Diseases. GENETIC DISEASES OF COPPER ABSORPTION AND HOMEOSTASIS. Defects in Copper Uptake, Distribution, and Excretion. REFERENCES. NUTRITIONAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND PHYSIOLOGIC FACTORS AFFECTING SELENIUM, CHROMIUM, AND NICKEL SUFFICIENCY. SELENIUM. Selenium as a Nutrient and as a Potential Toxic Agent. FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SELENIUM. SELENIUM ADSORPTION FROM HIGH PORTEIN PRODUCTS. CHROMIUM. Chromium Chemistry and the Evidence of Nutritional Essentiality. Chromium Absorption and Tissue Distribution. Biological Roles of Chromium. Chromium Nutrition in Protein-Energy Malnutrition, Stress, and TPN. NICKEL. REFERENCES. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND THE EFFECT OF PROTEIN AND OTHER FOODSTUFFS ON THE ABSORPTION OF MANGANESE, MOLYBDENUM, AND VANADIUM. MANGANESE. Role of Manganese in Biological Processes. Nutritional Requirements in Man and Animals. Manganese Deficiency and Toxicity. Factors Involved in the Intestinal Absorption of Manganese. Protein-Derived Products and Manganese Absorption. MOLYBDENUM. Occurrence of Molybdenum in Nature. Its Passage Through the Food Chain. Role of Molybdenum in Biological Processes. Nutritional Requirements in Man and Animals. Molybdenum Deficiency and Toxicity. Factors Involved in the Intestinal Absorption of Molybdenum. Protein-Derived Products and Molybdenum Absorption. VANADIUM. Role of Vanadium in Biological Processes. Intestinal Absorption of Vanadium. REFERENCES. THE ABSORPTION OF ARSENIC, BORON, SILICON, ALUMINUM, TIN, IODINE, AND FLUORINE: INTERACTIONS WITH PROTEINS AND OTHER NUTRIENTS. NUTRIENT VARIABLES AND THE ABSORPTION OF ARSENIC. Man and Its Relationship with Arsenic. Presentation of the Element in Nature. Arsenic as an Essential Trace Element. Role of Arsenic in Biological Processes. Arsenic in the Food Chain. Absorption of Arsenic. Metabolism of Protein and Amino Acids and Arsenic Nutrition. BIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN BORON SUFFICIENCY. Boron in Nature and Its Role in Biological Processes. Boron in the Food Chain and Metabolic Fate of Ingested Boron. Metabolic Effects of Boron. Interaction with Vitamin D and Other Minerals. Role of Certain Amino Acids. SILICON AS A NUTRIENT. INTERACTIONS WITH PROTEINS AND OTHER DIETARY PRODUCTS. Silicon in Nature and in the Human Food Chain. Biological Role of Silicon. Interaction of Silicon with Other Nutrients. NUTRITIONAL AND TOXIC ASPECTS OF ALUMINUM IN THE DIET AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Aluminum in Nature and in the Food Chain. Intestinal Absorption of Aluminum. Toxicity of Aluminum. Factors Affecting the Oral Absorption of Aluminum. TIN IN THE DIET AND THE ENVIRONMENT. ITS INTERACTION WITH OTHER NUTRIENTS. Tin in Nature and in the Food Chain. The Question of Tin Essentiality. Intestinal Absorption of Tin. Interaction of Tin with Other Nutrients. PROTEIN AND OTHER NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN THE METABOLISM AND ABSORPTION OF IODINE. Iodine in Nature. Chemical Characteristics. Role and Metabolism of Iodine. Essentiality of Iodine. Requirements. Nutritional Deficit and Toxicity. Iodine in Foods. Relation with Nutritional Status and Protein Sufficiency. NUTRITIONAL FACTORS IN THE ABSORPTION OF FLUORINE. Role of Fluorine Compounds in Calcified Tissue and Dental Integrity. Possible Essentiality of Fluorine. Metabolic Effects. Fluorine in the Diet. Absorption and Excretion. Relationship of Fluorine with Macronutrients. Interactions with Other Minerals. REFERENCES. "FINGERS", "KNUCKLES", "HANDS", "FISTS", "SIGNATURES", AND OTHER STRUCTURAL MOTIFS IN PROTEINS INVOLVING ZINC AND OTHER ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS. ZINC "FINGERS" AND THEIR ROLE IN BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PROTEINS. Transcription Factors. Zinc Fingers in Hormone Receptors. Finger Loops and Oncogenes. BINDING OF ZINC TO OTHER PROTEINS. DEVELOPMENT OF CATALYTIC PROPERTIES. DIFFERENT "SIGNATURES". COPPER "FISTS", METALLOTHIONEINS, AND GENE EXPRESSION. PROTEIN STRUCTURE DESIGN: "HELICES", "HANDS", "GREEK KEYS", "b-BARRELS", "SHEETS", "COILS", AND "ZIPPERS". REFERENCES. OVERVIEW.
"This is a wonderful volume. It will be of great use to all of us involved in clinical nutrition and will serve as an excellent starting point for anyone wishing an introduction to this important field."-Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition