Predicting Crop Phenology focuses on an analysis of the issues faced in predicting the phenology of crop plants and weeds. It discusses how these issues have been handled by active crop growth simulation model developers and emphasizes areas such as the role of modeling in agricultural research and the roles of temperature, length of day, and water stress in plant growth. This comprehensive text also discusses modeling philosophy and programming techniques in modeling crop development and growth. It presents up-to-date information on phenology models for wheat, maize, sorghum, rice, cotton, and several weed species. Predicting Crop Phenology reviews important data for agricultural engineers, plant physiologists, agricultural consultants, researchers, extension agents, model developers, agricultural science instructors and students.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION. CROP GROWTH SIMULATION AND THE ROLE OF PHENOLOGICAL MODELS. THE ROLE OF MODELING RESEARCH IN CROP PRODUCTION. Integrating Knowledge. Testing Quantitative Hypotheses. Technology Transfer. IMPORTANCE OF PHENOLOGICAL MODELING IN CROP GROWTH MODELING. Annuals. Perennials. References. TEMPERATURE AND WATER STRESS EFFECTS ON PHENOLOGY. INTRODUCTION. TEMPERATURE. Thermal Time Accumulation. Vernalization. Heat and Cold Stress. WATER STRESS. References. PREDICTING DAYLENGTH EFFECTS ON PHEONOLOGICAL PROCESSES. INTRODUCTION. RESEARCH PHILOSOPHIES IN DAYLENGTH RESEARCH. Early Research. Absolute Versus Quantitative Descriptors. Time Interval Between Events Versus Duration of Events. PHENOLOGY AS AN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS. Maximizing Seed Production Through Flowering Date. Phases of Development. Analysis of Days or Thermal Time Versus Daylength. Analysis of Rate of Development Versus Daylength. The Reproductive Phase. The Maturation Phase. INTERACTION OF DAYLENGTH AND TEMPERATURE. Scales Used for Daylength Response. Extreme Interactions. EFFECT OF DAYLENGTH RESPONSE ON ADAPTATION. Effect of Latitude. Effect of Planting Date. Genetic Variability of Daylength Responses. Conclusions. References. PREDICTING LEAF DEVELOPMENT OF CROP PLANTS. INTRODUCTION. Ideal Leaf Development Scheme. RESULTS. Leaf Appearance Rate. Duration of Leaf Expansion. Effects of Drought Stress. Photoperiod, Rate of Change of Photoperiod, and Solar Radiation. Leaf Initiation With Different Photoperiods and Solar Radiation. Leaf Appearance and Duration of Expansion With Different Photoperiods and Solar Radiation. Leaf Appearance With Different Rates of Change in Photoperiod. Nutrients. Within-Species Cultivar Differences. SUMMARY. References. STEMS: PATTERNS AND DURATION OF DEVELOPMENT. QUANTIFYING STEM GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. MERISTEMS AS SITES FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. THE SHOOT APEX. INTERNODE ELONGATION. Cell Level. Organ Level. VASCULAR TISSUE. Phyllotaxy and Vascular Interconnections Between Leaves. Xylem. Phloem. AXILLARY BUDS AND BRANCHES, MODIFIED STEMS, AND ADVENTITIOUS BUDS. Axillary Buds and Branches. Tillers, Stolons, Rhizomes, and Tubers. Adventitious Buds and Roots. THE ROLE OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS. MAIN SHOOT AND BRANCHING PATTERNS. COMPLICATIONS OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSES. EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL. SOME NOVEL MODELING PHILOSOPHY. References. TILLERING IN WHEAT. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW. PLANT PART IDENTIFICATION. IDENTIFICATION GUIDES AND PATTERNS. PLANT BUILDING BLOCK STRUCTURE. DEVELOPMENT PATTERN. TIMING OF DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ABNORMALITIES. RELEASE OF APICAL DOMINANCE. NORMAL TILLER ABORTION. STRESS INDUCED ABORTION. PHENOLOGICAL STAGES. ALGORITHMS. Degree Days. Cumulative Degree Days. Main Stem Haun Development Stage. Maximum Tillers on a Plant. Number of Phyllochron Intervals from January 1 to Various Development Stages. References. PREDICTING ROOT DEVELOPMENT OF CROP PLANTS. INTRODUCTION. ROOT DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS. Introduction. Monocots. Dicots. Root Branching. Effect of Environment on Root Anatomy. Root Senescence. ROOT-SHOOT RELATIONSHIPS. ROOT-SOIL GROWTH RELATIONSHIPS. Introduction. Root Elongation Physiology. Requirements for Elongation. ROOTING DEPTH OF ANNUAL CROPS. ROOT GROWTH MODELS. Some Existing Models. Limitations to Development of Root Growth Models. References. MODELING AND PROGRAMMING PHILOSOPHIES. BALANCE OF MECHANISM AND EMPIRICISM. Empirical Models. Mechanistic Model. RESEARCH AND APPLICATION MODELS. Research Models. Application Models. MODULAR PROGRAMMING. Reusable Modules, Reusable Code. Object Oriented Programming Systems. References. STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING IN SIMULATION MODELS. INTRODUCTION. CHARACTERISTICS OF A STRUCTURED PROGRAM. Top-Down Design. Modular. Go-To-Less. Highly Cohesive. Loosely Coupled. CONTROL STRUCTURES IN STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING. Sequence. If-Then-Else. Do-While. Do-Until. References. PREDICTING MAIZE PHENOLOGY. GENERAL MODEL DESCRIPTION. TEST RESULTS. DISCUSSION. References. THE CERES-WHEAT PHENOLOGY MODEL. INTRODUCTION. TEMPERATURE CALCULATIONS. Thermal Time Accumulation. Vernalization Units. Cold Hardiness Index. Photoperiod. Phyllochron Interval. GROWTH STAGE CALCULATIONS. End of the Previous Crop to Planting (ISTAGE=7). Planting to Germination (ISTAGE=8). Germination to Emergence (ISTAGE=9). Emergence to Floral Initiation. (ISTAGE=1) Floral Initiation to Begin Ear Growth (ISTAGE=2). Begin Ear Growth to Anthesis (ISTAGE=3). Anthesis to Begin Grain Fill (ISTAGE=4). Grain Fill Period (ISTAGE=5). Maturity (ISTAGE=6). TILLER INITIATION AND SENESCENCE. LEAVES. Initiation. Growth. Senescence. Aging. Cold Damage. Water and Nitrogen Stress. SUMMARY. References. PHASIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CERES-SORGHUM MODEL. INTRODUCTION. THERMAL TIME ESTIMATION. ORGANIZATION OF PHASIC DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES. DESCRIPTION AND MODELING GROWTH STAGES. Stage 7: Presowing. Stage 8: Sowing to Germination. Stage 9: Germination to Seedling Emergence. Stage 1: Seedling Emergence to End Juvenile Stage. Stage 2: End of Juvenile Stage to End of PI. Stage 3: PI to End of Leaf Growth. Stage 4: End of Leaf Growth to Beginning of Grain Filling. Stage 5: Effective Grain Filling to Physiological Maturity. Stage 6: Physiological Maturity to Harvest. MODEL VALIDATION. References. THE SIMULATION OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT IN GOSSYM. INTRODUCTION. SUBROUTINE GROWTH. SUBROUTINE PLTMAP. SUBROUTINE ABSCISE. SUMMARY. References. Simulating Yield Development Using the Cotton Model. Simulating Yield Development Using the Cotton Model Cottam. INTRODUCTION. INDIVIDUAL FRUIT DEVELOPMENT. WHOLE PLANT DEVELOPMENT. References. A MODEL FOR THE PHENOLOGY OF RICE. INTRODUCTION. RICE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. MODELING RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEM. FACTORS AFFECTING RICE PHENOLOGY. MODELING PHENOLOGICAL EVENTS AND STAGES. Sowing. Germination Stage. Emergence Stage. Juvenile Stage. Panicle Initiation Stage. Heading Stage. Pre-Grain Filling Stage. Grain Filling Stage. Physiological Maturity. MODEL DEMONSTRATION. CONCLUDING REMARKS. References. WEED PHENOLOGY. INTRODUCTION. A MODERN DEFINITION OF PHENOLOGY. COMPETITION MODELS. Regression Models. Simple Dynamic Models. Complex Dynamic Systems Models. MECHANISTIC PHENOLOGY MODELS. Germination. Vegetative Sprouting. Shoot Emergence. Leaf Area Development. Sexual Reproduction and Senescence. Asexual Reproduction. Root Development. Modeling the Effects of Competition on Phenology. VERTICAL INTEGRATION. References. BIBLIOGRAPHY. INDEX.