Political Worlds of Women provides a comprehensive overview of women's political activism, comparing formal and informal channels of power from official institutions of state to grassroots mobilizations and Internet campaigns. Illuminating the politics of identity enmeshed in local, national, and global gender orders, this book explores women's creation of new political spaces and innovative political strategies to secure full citizenship and equal access to political power. Incorporating case studies from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, Mary Hawkesworth analyzes critical issues such as immigration and citizenship, the politics of representation, sexual regulation, and gender mainstreaming in order to examine how women mobilize in this era of globalization. Political Worlds of Women deepens understandings of national and global citizenship and presents the formidable challenges facing racial and gender justice in the contemporary world. It is an essential resource for students and scholars of women's studies and gender politics.
Table of Contents
Political Worlds of Women: Introduction Strategies of Political Analysis Comparative Assessment Multilevel Analysis Feminist Theorizing in Context Tracing Historical Change Expanding Political Frames From Individual and Institutional Analysis to Structures of Oppression Chapter Overview I. Political Leadership, Gendered Institutions, and the Politics of Exclusion Women in Executive Offices Women in National Legislatures Explaining Women's Continuing Absence Gendered Institutions and the Politics of Exclusion: Historical Precedents Body Politics in the American and French Revolutions The Consolidation of Separate Spheres Political Parties and the Politics of Exclusion: Contemporary Practices Conclusion II. From Demography to Development: Women's Worlds and the Politics of Knowledge Global Gender Demographics Life Expectancy Gender Ratios Marriage and Divorce Pregnancy and Childbearing Women's Labor Migration War and Displacement Development Modernization Theory as Policy Practice Gender and Gendering in Development Policies Women and Development: Reproduction and "Welfare" Women in Development: The Virtues of Waged Labor in the Formal Sector Gender and Development Sustainable Development Conclusion III. Producing Raced-Gendered Citizens Liberty, Equality, and Citizenship: Classical Liberal Presumptions The Political Demarcation of Public and Private Spheres Producing Raced-Gendered Citizens Birthright and Its Suspension Miscegenation Laws: Crafting the Complexion of Citizens Immigration The Discursive Production of Raced-Gendered Citizens Welfare Policy Biopower Conclusion IV. From the Politics of Identity to Identity Politics Dispelling Caricatures of Identity Politics The Politics of Identity The Microphysics of Power: Regulating Dress Patrolling National Borders: Marriage and Reproduction Reproducing Servility Sexual Terror as Feminizing Practice Femicide Making Injustice Visible and Actionable Identity Politics Struggling for Visibility Expanding the National Imaginary Challenging Political Homophobia Securing Constitutional Rights and Recognition Transnational Strategies for Sexual Democracy Conclusion V. Engaging the State Competing Conceptions of the State The Struggle for Equal Citizenship The Quest for Equality in the United States Activism and Advocacy in Comparative Perspective Women's Movements and Democratization in Latin America Women's Movement Activism at the Grassroots in India Feminist Civil Society: From Interest Groups to NGOs NGOs in Postsocialist States The European Women's Lobby: Coordinating Gender Equality Initiatives Engaging the State in Africa: From Apartheid to the War on Terror Mobilizing for Equality in South Africa Engaging the State in Morocco Conclusion VI. Becoming the State Portraits of Women Heads of State Routes to Power: From Kinship to Quotas Political Parties and the Gender Politics of Partisanship Strategies to Limit Male Dominance Reserved Seats Voluntary Party Quotas Mandatory Quotas Challenges in Governing: Gender Politics in Office Obstacles Confronting Women in Political Office Conclusion VII. Promoting Equality Through Policymaking and Policy Equality Policies: From Women's Machinery to State Feminism Women's Policy Machinery State Feminism Policy Interventions: Violence Against Women Brazil's Delegacia da Mulher (Women's Police Station) Family Courts in India Gender Mainstreaming Comparative Approaches to Gender Mainstreaming The Politics of Equality Conclusion VIII. International and Transnational Political Activism Activism Within International Institutions The UN Commission on the Status of Women and CEDAW UN World Conferences and NGO Forums UN Women Transnational Activism: Preventing War by Reconceptualizing Peace Early Twentieth-Century Interventions Promoting Peace in the Contemporary Era Expanding the Framework of Peace Activism Everyday Peacemaking Conclusion IX. Virtual Politics The Technological Infrastructure for Virtual Politics New Media and the Politics of Mobilization Flash Mobs Networking Blogging Information Politics Peer-to-Peer Exchanges New Media, Electoral Politics, and Political Participation: Evidence from the United States Inclusion and Exclusion in Virtual Politics The Microphysics of Power Within the Profession The Politics of Representation and the Content of New Media North/South Inequities Gendered Genres in New Media Refiguring the Public and the Private Conclusion X. Political Worlds of Women: Future Prospects Prospects for Equitable Politics Obstacles Gendered States, Subordinating Practices Stereotyping and Bias in Evaluation Norms Grounded in Men's Experience Frames That Mask Raced-Gendered Power Economic Practices That Fuel Inequality Resistance and Reaction Fundamentalist Offensives Future Prospects