Advances in the quality and accessibility of computer graphics has provided new pictorial displays and the tools with which to control them. These new display technologies have focused interest on how to design the static and dynamic images they produce to ensure effective communication. This book, based on the conference on Spatial Displays and Spatial instruments held at the Asilomar Conference Centre in 1987, focuses on the geometry of this communication. It is intended to be a source book of theoretical analysis, experimental demonstrations and practical examples from a range of contributors interested in pictorial communication, from medical artists to astronauts. The book offers the theoretical background and practical guidance needed by designers of contemporary 2D and 3D graphical computer interfaces. Its major contribution lies in its outlining of the elements of human perception and motor control which underlie the geometric design of head-mounted graphics for virtual reality displays.
Table of Contents
Part 1 Environments: introduction to the environments, S.R.Ellis; physics at the edge of the Earth, J.P.Allen; pictorial communication - pictures and the synthetic universe, S.R.Ellis. Part 2 Knowing: introduction to Knowing, M.K. Kaiser; Perceiving Environmental Properties From Motion information - minimal conditions, D.R.Proffitt and M.K.Kaiser; distortions in memory for visual displays, B.Tversky; cartography and map displays, G.F.McCleary et al; interactive displays in medical art, D.A.McConathy and M.Doyle; efficiency of graphical perception, G.E.Legge et al; volumetric visualization of 3D data, G.Russell and R.Miles; the making of the mechanical universe, J.Blinn. Part 3 Acting: introduction to acting, A.C.Grunwald; vehicular control - spatial designs as a means to increase pilot situational awareness, experience and results in tele- operation of land vehicles, a computer graphics system for visualizing spacecraft in orbit, design and evaluation of a visual display aid for orbital maneuvering; manipulative control - telepresence, time delay and adaptation, muti-axis control in telemanipulation and vehicle guidance, visual enhancements in pick-and-place tasks - human operators controlling a simulated cylindrical manipulator; visual/motor mapping and adaptation - target axis effects under transformed visual mappings, adapting to variable prismatic displacement, visuomotor modularity, ontogeny and training high-performance skills with spatial instruments, separate visual representations for perception and for visually guided behaviour, seeing by exploring; orientation - spatial vision within egocentric and exocentric frames of reference, comments on "spatial vision within egocentric and exocentric frames of reference", sensory conflict in Motion Sickness - An Observer Theory Approach, Interaction Of Form And orientation, optical, gravitational and kinesthetic determinants of judged eye level, voluntary presetting of the vestibular ocular reflex permits gaze stabilization despite perturbation of fast head movements. Part 4 Seeing: introduction to seeing, S.R.Ellis; pictorial space - the perception of geometrical structure from congruence, the perception of three-dimensionality across continuous surfaces, the effect of viewpoint on the virtual space of pictures, on the efficacy of cinema, or what the visual system did not evolve to do, visual slant underestimation, direction judgement error in computer generated displays and actual scenes, how to reinforce perception of depth in single two-dimensional pictures; primary depth cues - spatial constraints of stereopsis in video displays, stereoscopic distance perception, paradoxical monocular stereopsis and perspective vergence, the eyes prefer real images.