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The phytochemical industry has entered a rapid growth phase internationally. Market demands are driving product development, while science tries to identify specific components that contribute health giving properties at physiological exposure levels. This book presents the findings of multidisciplinary research on the identification of active components in plant products and their possible physiologic benefits in the management or prevention of disease. Findings include: the latest epidemiological evidence on the association of fruits and vegetables and reduced risk of a variety of tumors; the role of tocotrienols in atherosclerosis and cancer prevention; the balance between known benefits and risks of free radical oxidation chemistry; metabolic pathways of carotenoids and their potential role in the prevention of cancer and age-related macular degeneration; a model for viewing interactions between phytochemicals. Also discussed are the potential applications for fungal components as food ingredients and supplement products and components of garlic and onions, including changes caused by processing of garlic nutritional supplements. A final chapter discusses developing claims for new phytochemical products.
Table of Contents
VEGETABLES, FRUIT AND CANCER RISK: THE ROLE OF PHYTOCHEMICALS Diet and Cancer Risk: Fruits and Vegetables * Epidemiologic Evidence: Selected Example * Classification of Fruits and Vegetables * Biologic Plausibility: A Conceptual Framework * Bioactive Compounds in Fruits and Vegetables: Selected Examples * Fruit and Vegetable Intake in the U.S.
PHYTOCHEMICALS AND TARGETS OF CHRONIC DISEASE Chemistry of Oxidation * Antioxidant Control of Oxidation * Prevention of Oxidation Formation * Scavenging of Activated Oxidants * Antioxidants * A Balance between Prooxidants and Antioxidants * Xenobiotic Mechanism * Diseases Whose Causes Can Directly Damage Certain Targets and Promote Disease * Oxidant Signaling Can Promote Certain Diseases * Cell Activation by Oxidants Can Promote Certain Diseases * Unresolved Issues *
TOCOTRIENOLS IN METABOLISM Biochemistry * Animal Studies * Human Studies * Tocotrienols and Atherosclerosis * Avian Studies * Mode of Action * Dose Dependent Inhibition of HMGCoA Reductase * Tocotrienols and Cancer * Grain Amaranth Tocols
PHYTOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS: ß-CAROTENE, TOCOPHEROL AND ASCORBIC ACID Biological and Biochemical Significance of Vitamin E * Antioxidant Role * Prooxidant Activity * Biological and Biochemical Significance of Ascorbic Acid * Antioxidant Properties * Prooxidant Effects of Ascorbic Acid * Biological and Biochemical Significance of ß-Carotene * Antioxidant vs. Prooxidant Properties * Ascorbic Acid Interactions with Tocopherol * ß-Carotene Interactions with Tocopherol * Ascorbic Acid and Other Carotenoid Interactions with ß-Carotene
DISTRIBUTION, BIOAVAILABILITY, AND METABOLISM OF CAROTENOIDS IN HUMANS Evidence for Nutritional Benefit of Carotenoids in Disease Prevention * Epidemiological Studies * Carotenoid Distribution in Fruits and Vegetables, Human Serum and Breastmilk * Carotenoids in Human Organs and Tissues * In vitro Studies of Chemopreventive Properties * A Recent in vivo Study with Rodents * Bioavailability of Lutein and Zeaxanthin from Purified Supplements * Metabolic Transformation of Carotenoids in Humans
CAROTENOID-CAROTENOID INTERACTIONS Intestinal Metabolism and Absorption of Carotenoids in Disease Prevention * Micellar Solubilization * Uptake by Enterocytes * Intracellular Transport * Cleavage of Provitamin A Carotenoids * Incorporation into Intestinal Lipoproteins * Postprandial Kinetics of ß-Carotene and Oxycarotenoids * Postprandial Interactions of ß-Carotene and Oxycarotenoids * Health Implications
CASE STUDY: DUNALIELLA ALGAL-DERIVED ß-CAROTENE Biology and Halotolerance * ß-Carotene Production * Caroteneogenesis * Biotechnology of ß-Carotene Production by Dunaliella * Extraction and Concentration * Natural versus Synthetic ß-Carotene * Dunaliella Market Products * Commercial Producers
THE ORGANOSULFUR AND ORGANOSELENIUM COMPONENTS OF GARLIC AND ONIONS Thiosulfinates in Allium Homogenates: Garlic Organosulfur Compounds * The Lachrymatory Factor (LF) and Other Onion Organosulfur Compounds * Organoselenium Compounds in Garlic and Onion * Transformation of Allium flavorants Following Cooking and Ingestion * Commercially Available Garlic Preparations * Summary of Allium Biological Activity
EMERGING APPLICATIONS OF FUNGAL CHEMISTRY Ecological, Evolutionary, and Biochemical Attributes of Fungi Relative to Human Nutrition and Health * Human Perspectives * Biochemical Affinities between Fungi, Plants and People * Fungal Biochemical Pathways and Products of Special Interest * Fungal Chemistry in Nutrition and health * Contributions to Knowledge from Traditional and Scientific Sources * Medicinal Fungi of Special Interest * Medical Chemistry of Lentinus edobes (Shiiatake) * Medicinal Chemistry of Ganoderma lucidum (LingZhi or Reishi) * Medicinal Chemistry of Cordyceps Species (Chan Hua, Semitake, Tochukaso) * General Nutritional Chemistry from Fungi * Fungal Chemistry Supporting Food Characteristics and Preparative Technologies * Future uses of Fungi to Expand the Diversity and Utility of Phytochemical Resources * Modification of Phytochemicals by Fungi * Biomass Reduction and Potential Chemical Derivatives * Saccharization and Other Processing *
DEVELOPING CLAIMS FOR NEW PHYTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTS Consumer Attitudes about Food Labels * Regulatory Categories for Phytochemicals
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