Photodegradation of Water Pollutants, the only complete survey available of current photocatalytic methods for treating water pollutants, covers all aspects of light-stimulated detoxification. Ideal for researchers and students, this new book explains methods for pollution treatment that have proven more effective than conventional biodegradation.
Photodegradation of Water Pollutants examines advanced oxidation processes that have been successful in treating the chemical substances produced by industrial effluents and intensive agriculture. These oxidation processes include irradiation with ultraviolet or visible light, the use of homogenous sensitizers, such as dyes, and the use of heterogeneous photocatalysts, such as dispersed semiconductors.
In addition, Photodegradation of Water Pollutants addresses the naturally occurring self-cleaning of some pollutants in sunlit surface waters, as well as several alternative non-photochemical approaches to water treatment. Available treatment options are discussed for the main groups of water pollutants, including toxic inorganic ions (cyanides, heavy metals), hydrocarbon derivatives (oil spills, surfactants, pulp and paper wastes), halocarbons, organo-N, organo-P, and organo-S compounds. The text also contains a unique section on the economics of advanced oxidation pollution treatments.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Advanced Oxidation Processes. Mechanisms: eaq-, 102, .OH and Peroyxy Radicals. Sensitized Excitation. Semiconductor Promoted Photooxidation. Experimental Techniques.
Inorganic Ions and Molecules: Water and Hydrogen Peroxide. Halide Ions. Nitrogen Compounds. Phosphorus Oxyanions. Sulfur Oxyanions and Sulfide. Heavy Metal Ions. Organo-Metallic Compounds.
Hydrocarbon Derivatives: Aliphatic Compounds. Aromatic and Other Cyclic Compounds. Long-Chain Compounds. Photo-induced Nitrosation and Nitration.
Halocarbons: Aliphatic Halocarbons. Aromatic and Other Cyclic Compounds.
Organic Nitrogen Compounds: Triazines. Amines, Amides, and Carbamates. Nitrobenzene and Nitrophenols. Bromoxynil and Choroxynil. Thymine. Triclopyr. Fenarimol. Flavins. Catecholamines. Dyes. Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles.
Organic Phosphorus Compounds: Homogenous Photolysis. Heterogenous Photodegradation.
Organic Sulfur Compounds
Natural and Waste Waters: Natural Transformations in Freshwater and Oceans. Treatment of Polluted Groundwater. Treatment of Waste Water. Photodynamic Sterilization. Concentrated Sunlight.
Evaluation and Future Trends: Photodegradation Compared with Other Methods. Cost estimates, Energetics, and Conclusions.
THis TOC has 3 levels:
Advanced Oxidation Processes
Mechanisms: eaq-, 102, .OH and Peryoxy Radicals
Primary Reaction Steps
Role of Oxygen
Direct and Indirect Photodegradations
Zeta Potentials and Surface Properties
Surface Density of OH Groups in TiO2 Particles
Quantum Yields and Turnover Numbers
Laser and Excimer Light Sources
Inorganic Ions and Molecules
Water and Hydrogen Peroxide
Sulfur Oxyanions and Sulfide
Heavy Metal Ions
Aromatic and Other Cyclic Compounds
Lignin Sulfonates and Kraft Wastewater
Photoinduced Nitrosation and Nitration
Aromatic and Other Cyclic Halocarbons
Polychlorinated Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls
Organic Nitrogen Compounds
Amines, Amides, and Carbamates
Nitrobenzene and Nitrophenols
Bromoxynil and Chloroxynil
Dyes in Municipal Wastewater
Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles
Organic Phosphorus Compounds
Organic Sulfur Compounds
Natural and Waste Waters
Natural Transformations in Freshwater and Oceans
Treatment of Polluted Groundwater
Treatment of Wastewater
Evaluation and Future Trends
Photodegradation Compared with Other Methods
Oxidation in Supercritical Water
Cost Estimates, Energetics, and Conclusions
Energy Requirement Evaluation