This valuable new book offers practical guidance regarding the design and operation of systems for reducing effluent nitrogen and phosphorus. The principles of nitrogen and phosphorus removal are discussed, including sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater, removal options, nitrogen and phosphorus transformations in treatment, process selection, and treatment. The book also covers the design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorus removal systems, including system options, system design, facility design, facility costs, and operation. Practical case studies are provided as examples of successful system implementations that may be able to help you decide what will work best in your plant.
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION. PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL NITROGEN REMOVAL. SOURCES OF NITROGEN IN WASTEWATER. NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES. OVERVIEW OF AVAILABLE NITROGEN REMOVAL OPTIONS. Nitrogen Removal by Assimilation. Nitrification. Denitrification. Combined Nitrification/Denitrification. Summary of Design Procedure for Biological Nitrification-Denitrification. Denitrification in Fixed Film Reactors. Nitrification in Fixed Film Reactors. PROCESS SELECTION. PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR NITROGEN REMOVAL. Breakpoint Chlorination. Air Stripping of Ammonia. Selective Ion Exchange. DESIGN AND OPERATION OF BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN REMOVAL FACILITIES. PROCESS OPTIONS. Nitrification Options. Denitrification Options. PROCESS SELECTION. Performance. Process Stoichiometry. Operation and Maintenance. Cost. Summary. SYSTEM DESIGN-SINGLE-SLUDGE SYSTEMS. Process Design. Facilities Design. Facilities Costs. SYSTEM OPERATION. Operational Characteristics. Operational Cost Considerations. FULL-SCALE EXPERIENCE. General. Case Studies. PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL PHOSPHATE REMOVAL. SOURCES OF PHOSPHORUS IN WASTEWATER. OVERVIEW OF AVAILABLE CHEMICAL PHOSPHATE REMOVAL OPTIONS. Lime. Iron and Aluminum. SLUDGE PRODUCTION. SUMMARY. DESIGN AND OPERATION OF CHEMICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL FACILITIES. PROCESS OPTIONS. Chemical Selection. Dose Points. PROCESS SELECTION. Selection Factors. Chemical Comparison. SYSTEM DESIGN. Process Design. Facility Design. SLUDGE HANDLING IMPACTS. Solids Generation. Clarification. Thickening and Dewatering. Digestion. Effluent Phosphorus Limitation. Ultimate Disposal. Cost. SYSTEM OPERATION. Process Control. Operating Costs. FULL-SCALE EXPERIENCE. General. Case Studies. PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL MECHANISMS. Fate of Substrate in the Anaerobic Zone. Phosphorus Storing Microorganisms. Summary of Biological Phosphorus Removal Mechanism. BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL SYSTEMS. FACTORS AFFECTING BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL PERFORMANCE. Environmental Factors. Design Parameters. Substrate Availability. Phosphorus Removal Versus VFA Production. IMPROVING BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL. DESIGN AND OPERATION OF BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL FACILITIES. PROCESS OPTIONS. Phosphorus Removal Only. Combined Phosphorus/Nitrogen Removal. Sludge Fermentation. SELECTION FACTORS. Wastewater Characteristics. Nitrogen Removal Considerations. Summary. SYSTEM DESIGN. Process Design. Facility Design. Facilities Costs. SYSTEM OPERATION. Operational Considerations. Operational Cost Considerations. FULL-SCALE EXPERIENCE. General. Case Studies. CASE STUDIES IN BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL. INTRODUCTION. Primary and Secondary Releases of Phosphorus. Role of Different Short-Chain Carbohydrates. External Production of Volatile Fatty Acids. OPERATING EXPERIENCES AND CASE STUDIES. Goudkoppies, Johannesburg. Northern Works, Johannesburg. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Kelowna, British Columbia. Secunda, Transvaal. Randfontein. Disney World, Florida. Tembisa, Transvaal. Summary of Plant Experiences. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN OPERATING FOR PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL. Sludge Age or SRT Control. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Control. Scum Control. Level of Operator Skill. Control of Nitrogen. Redox Control of the Anaerobic Basin. Control and Monitoring of the Acid Generator. Chemical Back-up Requirements. High Level Phosphorus Removal. COST IMPLICATIONS. INDEX.