The author of this study of policymaking in postwar Japan contends that the prevailing perceptions of the subject advanced to date are inadequate. Professor Pempel identifies three distinct patterns of policymaking within Japan's current system of hegemonic pluralism. One of these, "policymaking by camp conflict, "is associated with broad, highly emotional, ideological issues that polarize political forces and that are resolved only after widely publicized battles in the Diet, the media, and the streets. A second pattern, "incremental policymaking, "involves nonideological problems that are settled largely through bureaucratic procedures almost totally removed from public scrutiny. A third pattern, "pressure group policymaking, "pits a limited number of special interest groups against one or more government agencies; this process is less conflictual and public than camp conflict, but more visible and antagonistic than incremental policymaking.
Table of Contents
List of Tables and Figures – Acknowledgments -- 1. INTRODUCTION -- 2. FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS -- 3. NATURE OF THE ISSUES -- Higher Education in the Prewar Period -- State Dominance -- Institutional Differentiation – Elitism -- Higher Education during the Occupation – Demilitarization – Democratization -- The "Reverse Course" -- 4. NATURE OF POLITICAL STRUCTURES -- Bipolarity and Hegemonic Pluralism -- Bureaucratic Control -- Advisory Committees -- Decline in Private Sector Autonomy -- Legislation and the Diet -- Administrative Directives and Bureaucratic Communications -- The Dilemma of Nonconservative Interests -- 5. POLICYMAKING THROUGH CAMP CONFLICT: UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATION -- The Conflict of 1952-54 -- The Efforts of 1960-63 -- The Political Conflict of 1968-69 -- 6. INCREMENTAL POLICYMAKING: -- Enrollment EXPANSION -- Indirect Efforts to Expand Enrollment -- Chartering of Universities -- Nonenforcement of Minimum Legal Standards -- Funding Policy -- Consequences of Government Enrollment Policy -- Deterioration of Educational Conditions -- Class Bias -- Supporting Values -- 7. PRESSURE GROUP POLITICS: -- DIFFERENTIATION AND SPECIALIZATION -- Demands of Big Business -- Differentiation among Institutions -- Specialization of Training -- 8. CONCLUSION – Notes -- Index -- Studies of the East Asian Institute.