Environmental problems have become increasingly complex. The procedures for investigating these problems cross the traditional boundaries of organic and analytical chemistry, microbiology and biology. Organic Chemicals: An Environmental Perspective brings together the basic issues of chemical analysis, distribution, persistence, and ecotoxicology.The author illustrates each point with specific examples and presents a mechanistic approach to microbial reactions. Extensive cross referencing between chapters provides cohesion and complete coverage of issues tangential to each topic. The new edition has been extensively revised, and contains a new appendix, a new chapter, plus further revised information throughout the book. In fact, it is a completely new book.A major difficulty in environmental science is that much of the background is widely scattered in the specialized chemical, microbiological, and biological literature. The coverage of all these areas in a single volume, the coherence supplied by the cross references, and the extensive references to the original literature makes Organic Chemicals: An Environmental Perspective a unique resource.
Table of Contents
Preface Introduction Analysis Synopsis Introduction Sampling Extraction and Cleanup Procedures Involving Chemical Reactions: Derivatization Identification and Quantification: Basic Definitions General Comments Conclusions References Partition: Distribution, Transport, and Mobility Synopsis Introduction Partition in Biota: Uptake of Xenobiotics From the Aqueous Phase Partition Between Water, and Sediment or Soil phases Phase Heterogeneity: Dissolved Organic Carbon and Interstitial Water Partitions into the Atmosphere Dissemination of Xenobiotics Monitoring Conclusions References Persistence: General Orientation Introduction Synopsis Abiotic Reactions Biotic Reactions Mechanisms for the Introduction of Oxygen Interactions References Persistence: Experimental Aspects Introduction Abiotic Reactions Microbial Reactions Design of Experiments on Biodegredation and Biotransformation Experimental Problems: Water Solubility, Volatility, Sampling and Association of the Substrate with Microbial Cells Procedures for Elucidating Metabolic Pathways Use of Surrogate Substrates to Induce Enzymatic Activity Procedures for Analysis of Degradative Populations Classification and Identification of Organisms References Pathways of Degradation and Biotransformation Synopsis Introduction Aerobic Degradation of Non-Aromatic Hydrocarbons Aerobic Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds Aerobic Degradation of Hetercyclic Aromatic Compounds Degradation of Halogenated Alkanes and Alkenes Aerobic Degradation of Halogenated Aromatic Compounds Anaerobic Metabolism of Halogenated Aromatic Compounds Reactions Carried Out by Anaerobic Bacteria Other Than Dehalogenation References Ecotoxicology Synopsis Introduction Choice of Test Species in Laboratory Tests Experimental Determinants Test Systems: Single Organisms Test Systems: Several Organisms Metabolism of Xenobiotics by Higher Organisms Biomarkers: Biochemical and Physiological End-Points A Wider Perspective References Microbiolog