When an excessive proportion of the human energy requirement is derived from fat, the likelihood of obesity increases. Any such individual is at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease- grave and costly health hazards. The selective control of fat ingestion is a promising solution to these concerns. Existing data suggests that macronutrient intake can be manipulated. Further research is working to create pharmacological tools that will suppress fat consumption. It will also be possible to fight obesity, heart disease and diabetes. Neural and Metabolic Control of Macronutrient Intake systematically discusses the known physiological mechanisms involved in macronutrientselection, including their molecular, genetic and neurochemical aspects. The book is also a critical review of the hypothesis that ingestion of the three nutrients is regulated by separate neural control mechanisms, leaving open the possibility that strategies could be devised to intervene in bodily control systems and alter the proportion of fat in the diet.This reference provides three types of information: First, the basic background of the biochemical and physiological systems as they relate to macronutrient selection. Second, opinions and data concerning to what degree animals and humans show evidence of macronutrient selection. And, third, evidence about how the central nervous system might be involved in the choices animals make among macronutrients.
Table of Contents
Evidence for Macronutrient Selection: Basic Mechanisms and Strategies to Achieve Regulation Specific Appetites and Homeostatic Systems-Too Many Choices? A Critical Essay on Macronutrient Selection-Is There a Specific Appetite for Protein?- Geometric Models of Macronutrient Selection -Macronutrient Selection in Free Feeding Humans: Evidence for Long Term Regulation-Macronutrient-Specific Hungers and Satieties and Their Neural Bases, Learnt From Pre-and Post-Ingestional Effects of Eating Particular Foodstuffs- Macronutrient-Conditioned Flavor Preferences-Evidence for Caloric, but Not Macronutrient Compensation, to Preloads Varying in Fat and Carbohydrate Content in Human Subjects -The Effects of Nutrient Preloads on Subsequent Macronutrient Selection in Animal Models- Effects of Metabolic Processing on Energy Intake and Macronutrient Selection Intermediary Metabolism of Macronutrients-Physiological and Metabolic Control of Macronutrient Balance-Carbohydrate and Fat Metabolism, Appetite and Feeding Behavior in Humans-Effects of Metabollic Blockade on Macronutrient Seclection-Memory and Macronutrient Regulation -Effects of Food Deprivation, Starvation, and Exercise on Dietary Selction in the Rat-Effects of Fat Substitutes and Inhibitors of Absorption on Macronutrient Intake-Detection of Macronutrients and Their Metabolites Taste, Olfactory, Visual and Somatosensory Representations of the Sensory Properties of Foods in the Brain, and Their Relation to the Control of Food Intake-Satiation in Response to Macronutrient Signals From the Intestine: Mechanisms and Implications for Macronutrient Selction-Fat Absorption and the Role of Lymphatic Apolipoprotein A-IV in the Regulation of Food Intake-Enterostatin as a Regulator of Fat IntakePortal-Hepatic Sensors for Glucose, Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, and Availability of Oxidative Products-Glucosensing Neurons in the Central Nervous System-Amino Acid Recognition in the Central Nervous System-Neural Integration of Sensory and Metabo