This valuable resource discusses several strategies of manipulating colloids for environmental restoration, identifies advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, and considers obstacles limiting the application of each strategy. Approaches evaluated include the following:
Chemical modification of subsurface systems to mobilize or deposit colloids in situ
Altering the mobility of microorganisms to improve delivery of microbes for bioremediation
Manipulating colloids or biocolloids (bacteria) to change aquifer permeability to either enhance bioremediation or create in situ barriers
Introducing modified colloids, surfactants, and emulsions to control colloid mobility or to increase recovery of sorbed contaminants by pump and treat methods
Manipulation of Groundwater Colloids for Environmental Restoration also contains short, focused research reports on specific studies relevant to the various approaches under consideration. Subjects covered range from mobility of organic macromolecules by controlled field injection experiments to new techniques that investigate surface chemistry and aggregation of inorganic colloids. Other topics discussed include the depositional behavior and transport of biocolloids in porous media, surfactants as modifiers of surface binding sites on colloids, and genetic engineering of microorganisms to serve as contaminant-scavenging biocolloids. Manipulation of Groundwater Colloids for Environmental Restoration is an excellent resource for research scientists in hydrology, chemistry, and microbiology; environmental consultants; regulators; environmental engineers; bioremediation microbiologists; and engineers.
Table of Contents
Introduction and Scope (J.F. McCarthy and F.J. Wobber). Summary of Workshop Consensus (J.F. McCarthy). Mobilizing and Depositing Colloids: Overview (J.C. Westall and P.M. Gschwend). Particle Deposition in Porous Media in the Presence of a Repulsive Double Layer Force (C. Tien). Aggregation Kinetics and Fractal Structure of Colloidal Oxides (T.D. Waite, R. Amal, and J.A. Raper). Mobility of Natural Organic Matter Injected Into a Sandy Aquifer (J.F. McCarthy, L. Liang, P.M. Jardine, and T.M. Williams). Hydrogeochemical Factors Influencing Colloids in Waste Disposal Environments (P.M. Gschwend). Summary and Results-Discussion Leaders (P.M. Gschwend and J.M. Zachara). Biocolloid Mobility: Limits on Quantitative Descriptions of Biocolloid Mobility in Contaminated Groundwater (R.W. Harvey and E.J. Bouwer). Movement of Microorganisms Through Unconsolidated Porous Media without Fluid Flow (M.J. McInerney, P. Sharma, and P.J. Reynolds). Cells and Surfaces in Groundwater Systems (R.E. Martin, E.J. Bouwer, and L. Hanna). Adhesion and Deposition of Bacteria (H.H.M. Rijnaarts, W. Norde, J. Lyklema, and A.J.B. Zehnder). Physical and Chemical Controls on the Advective Transport of Bacteria (A.L. Mills, D.E. Fontes, G.M. Hornberger, and J.S. Herman). Modeling Biocolloid Transport in Porous Media: Chemical Aspects and Reversibility (R. Bales). Summary and Results-Discussion Leaders (E.J. Bouwer and R.W. Harvey). Manipulating Colloids to Change Aquifer Permeability: Overview (J.R. Hunt). Influence of Biofilm Accumulation on Porous Media Hydrodynamic Properties (A.B. Cunnigham). Biomass Manipulation to Control Pore Clogging in Aquifers (P.R. Jaffe and S.W. Taylor). Colloid Entrainment, Transport, and Entrapment in Two Phase Flow in Porous Media (M.M. Sharma). Effects of pH on Fines Migration and Permeability Reduction (H.S. Fogler and R.N. Vaidya). Effects of Cellular Polysaccharide Production on Cell Transport and Retention in Porous Media (R. Lappan and H.S. Fogler). Summary and Results-Discussion Leaders (H.S. Fogler and J.R. Hunt). Modified Colloids, Surfactants, and Emulsion: Manipulating Colloids and Contaminants in the Subsurface Via Surfactants (R.G. Luthy). Effects of Surfactants on NAPL Mobility in the Subsurface (K.F. Hayes and A.H. Demond). Adsorption of Ionic Surfactants and Their Role in Colloid Stability (D.W. Fuerstenau). Reactions of Anionic Surfactants in Saturated Soils and Sediments: Precipitation and Micelle Formation (C.T. Jafvert and J. Heath). Soil and Clay Modification for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (S.A. Boyd). Summary and Results-Discussion Leaders (J.C. Westall and R.G. Luthy). Abstracts of Poster Presentations: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Binding to Natural Organic Matter (NOM): A Comparison of NOM Fractions (G.L. Amy, M.H. Conklin, H. Liu, and C. Cawein). Factors Influencing Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Removal from Groundwater by the Alcohol Flooding Technique (G.R. Boyd and K.J. Farley). Heterogeneities in Radionuclide Transport: Pore Size, Particle Size, and Sorption (M.B. ten Brink, S. Martin, B. Viani, D.K. Smith, and D. Phinney). Colloidal Borescope: A Means of Assessing Local Colloidal Flux and Groundwater Velocity in Porous Media (T.A. Cronk and P.M. Kearl). Uptake of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds from Soil by Colloidal Surfactant Micelles (D.A. Edwards, Z. Liu, and R.G. Luthy). Deposition of Colloidal Particles in Porous Media in the Presence of Attractive Double Layer Interactions (M. Elimelech). Sizing and Chemical Characterization Studies of Natural Colloids and Macromolecules (J.S. Gaffney, N.A. Marley, and K.A. Orlandini). Characteristics of Colloids in Landfill Leachate (V. Gounaris, P.R. Anderson,and T.M. Holsen). Colloidal Radionuclide Groundwater-Surface Water Relationships (S.R. Grace). PCB Congeners as Tracers for Colloid Transport in the Subsurface: A Conceptual Approach (R.J-C. Hennet and C.B. Andrews). CTC-Colloid Transport Code and Simulation (R. Jain and H.E. Nuttall). Characterization of Fine Colloid (