The recognition of oxidative stress as a major factor in health, aging, and disease has led to a surge in research aimed at uncovering effective countermeasures in the form of antioxidants. Unique in its two-fold protective function, alpha-lipoic acid has drawn unprecedented interest as a coenzyme in mitochondrial energy metabolism and as an antioxidant and cell redox modulator. Mounting data regarding its potential health benefits demands an authoritative, single-source reference to codify current knowledge and guide future research.
A state-of-the-science compilation, Lipoic Acid follows the history of this potent coenzyme and the latest discoveries regarding the chemistry, biological action, and significance in energy production, antioxidant activity, and health. The book is divided into three sections:
· Section I: Discovery and Molecular Structure reviews the early studies leading to the discovery of alpha-lipoic acid and explains the molecular structure, biosynthesis, and the characterization of lipoic acid and its chemical derivatives.
· Section II: Metabolic Aspects describes in detail the human pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid including the lipoic acid-derived dehydrogenase complexes and their roles in energy metabolism. It also explains antioxidant activity and redox modulation and how lipoic acid induces Phase II detoxification enzymes through activation of Nrf2-dependent gene expression.
· Section III Clinical Aspects discusses enzyme deficiency disorders and the effects of lipoic acid on insulin. It defines lipoic acid influence on signaling pathways and AMP-activated kinase, and considers the therapeutic implications for treatment of metabolic syndromes and the improvement of mitochondrial function by lipoic acid supplementation.
Contributions from leading international researchers make Lipoic Acid the most comprehensive, up-to-date account of the impact of this potentially key molecule in diminishing the damaging effects of aging and disease.
Table of Contents
Discovery molecular structure
A Trail of Research on Lipoic Acid, L.J. Reed
Lipoic Acid Biosynthesis, N.M. Nesbitt, R.M. Cicchillo, K.H. Lee, T.L. Grove, and S.J. Booker
The Search for Potent α-lipoic Acid Derivatives: Chemical and Pharmacological Aspects, M. Ben Yakir, Y. Katzhendler, and S. Sasson
Novel Indole Lipoic Acid Derivatives: Synthesis and their Antioxidant Effects, A.S. Gurkan and E. Buyukbingol
The α-keto Acid Dehydrogenase Complexes and Glycine Cleavage System: Their Involvement in Pathways of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat Metabolism, R.A. Harris, N.H. Jeoung, M. Joshi, and B. Hwang
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Regulation and Lipoic Acid, L. Korotchkina and M.S. Patel
Role of Lipoyl Domains in the Function and Regulation of the Mammalian Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex, T.E. Roche, T. Peng, L. Hu, Y. Hiromasa, H. Bao, and X. Gong
Inactivation and Inhibition of α-ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase: Oxidative Modulation of Lipoic Acid, K.M. Humphries, A.C. Nulton-Persson, and L.I. Szweda
Lipoate-Protein Ligase A: Structure and Function, K. Fujiwara, H. Hosaka, A. Nakagawa, and Y. Motokawa
A Review of the Stability & Preliminary Evaluation of the Plasma Pharmacokinetics of R-lipoic acid & R-Dihydrolipoic Acid Dosage Forms in Human Plasma from Healthy Volunteers, D.A. Carlson, K.L. Young, S.J. Fischer, D.M. Dye, M. Chau, and H. Ulrich
The Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism and Renal Excretion of α-lipoic Acid and its Main Metabolites in Humans, J. Teichert and R. Preiss
Modulation of Cellular Redox and Metabolic Status by Lipoic Acid, D. Han and L. Packer
The “Redoxin” Connection of Lipoic Acid, J.A. Barcena, P. Porras, C.A. Padilla, J. Peinado, J.R. Pedrajas, E. Martinez-Galisteo, and R. Requejo
Lipoic Acid as an Inducer of Phase II Detoxification Enzymes through Activation of Nrf2-dependent Gene Expression, K. Peterson Shay, S. Shenvi and T.M. Hagen
Deficiency Disorders of Components of the PDH Complex: E2, BP & E3 Deficiencies, J.M. Cameron, M.C. Maj, and B.H. Robinson
The Relationship between Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Lipoic Acid, C. Selmi, X.S. He, C.L. Bowlus, and M.E. Gershwin
Effects of Lipoic Acid on Insulin Action in Animal Models of Insulin Resistance, E.J. Henriksen and S. Jacob
Activation of Cytoprotective Signaling Pathways by Alpha-Lipoic Acid, A.K. Kiemer and B. Diesel
Selenotrisulfide Derivatives of Alpha Lipoic Acid: Potential Use as a Novel Topical Antioxidant, W.T. Self
Alpha-Lipoic Acid: A Potent Mitochondrial Nutrient for Improving Memory Deficit, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction, J. Liu
Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on AMP-Activated Kinase in Different Tissues: Therapeutic Implications for the Metabolic Syndrome, E.H. Koh, E. H. Cho, M.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Park, and K.-U. Lee