Land Application of Biosolids: Process Design Manual

1st Edition

Epa

CRC Press
Published January 20, 1997
Reference - 310 Pages
ISBN 9781566765275 - CAT# TX65277

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Table of Contents

Introduction
* Overview
* Sewage Sludge Regulations
* Objectives of Manual
* Scope of Manual

Overview of Sewage Sludge Land Application Practices
* Introduction
* Application to Agricultural Lands
* Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Agricultural Land Application - Limitations of Agricultural Land Application
* Application to Forest Lands
* Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Forest Land Application - Limitations of Forest Land Application
* Application at Reclamation Sites
* Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Land Application at Reclamation Sites - Limitations of Land Application at Reclamation Sites
* Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens
* Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Land Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens - Limitations of Land Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens
* References

Overview of the Part 503 Regulatory Requirements for Land Application of Sewage Sludge
* General
* Pollutant Limits
* Ceiling Concentration Limits - Pollutant Concentration Limits - Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rates (CPLRs) - Annual Pollutant Loading Rates (APLRs) - Why Organic Pollutants Were Not Included in Part 503
* Manual Practices
* Operation Standards for Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction
* Pathogen Reduction Requirements - Vector Attraction Reduction Requirements
* Frequency of Monitoring
* Recordkeeping and Reporting
* Sewage Sludge Quality and the Part 503 Requirements
* Exceptional Quality (EQ) Sewage Sludge - Pollutant Concentration (PC) Sewage Sludge - Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate (CPLR) Sewage Sludge - Annual Pollutant Loading Rate (APLR) Sewage Sludge
* References

Characteristics of Sewage Sludge
* Introduction
* Sewage Sludge Quality
* Total Solids Content
* Volatile Solids Content
* pH
* Organic Matter
* Pathogens
* Nutrients
* Nitrogen - Phosphorus, Potassium, and Other Nutrients
* Metals
* Organic Chemicals
* Hazardous Pollutants (If Any)
* Types of Sewage Sludge
* Primary Sewage Sludge - Secondary Sewage Sludge - Tertiary Sewage Sludge - Domestic Septage
* Effects of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment Processes on Sewage Sludge Characteristics
* Effects of Pretreatment and Pollution Prevention Programs on Sewage Sludge Characteristics
* References

Site Evaluation and Selection Process
* General
* Part 503 Requirements
* Protection of Surface Water and Wetlands - Protection of Threatened and Endangered Species - Site Restrictions
* Planning and Selection Process
* Preliminary Planning
* Institutional and Regulatory Framework - Public Participation - Preliminary Land Area Requirements - Sewage Sludge Transport Assessment
* Phase I Site Evaluation and Site Screening
* Existing Information Sources - Land Use and Availability - Physical Characteristics of Potential Sites - Site Screening
* Phase II Site Evaluation: Field Investigation
* Selection of Land Application Practice
* Final Site Selection
* Preliminary Cost Analysis - Final Site Selection
* Site Selection Example
* City Characteristics - Sewage Sludge and Soil Characteristics - Regulations Considered - Public Acceptance - Preliminary Feasibility Assessment - Estimate Land Area Required - Eliminate Unsuitable Areas - Identify Suitable Areas - Phase II Site Survey and Field Investigation - Cost Analysis - Final Site Selection
* References

Phase II Site Evaluation
* General
* Preliminary Field Site Survey
* Site-Specific Field Investigations
* Base Map Preparation - Field Checking of Surface Features and Marking Buffer Zones on the Base Map - Identifying Topographic Limitations - Field Soil Survey - Delineation of Floodplains and Wetlands - Site Hydrogeology
* Soil Sampling and Analysis to Determine Agronomic Rates
* Part 503 Definition of Agronomic Rate - Soil Sampling
* Special Considerations for Reclamation Sites
* Sampling and Analysis of Disturbed Soils
* References

Process Design for Agricultural Land Application Sites
* General
* Regulatory Requirements and Other Considerations
* Nitrogen and Other Nutrients - Soil pH and Requirements for pH Reduction - Special Considerations for Arid Lands
* Application Methods and Scheduling
* Application Methods - Scheduling - Storage
* Determining Sewwage Sludge Application Rates for Agricultural Sites
* Part 503 Agronomic Rate for N and Pollutant Limits for Metals - Crop Selection and Nutrient Requirements - Calculating Residual N, P, and K - Calculation of Annual Application Rates - Calculation of Supplemental N, P, and K Fertilizer - Use of Computer Models to Assist in Determining Agronomic Rates
* Design Example of Sewage Sludge Application Rate Calculations
* Calculation of Agronomic N Rate for Each Field - Calculation of Long-Term Pollutant Loadings and Maximum Sewage Sludge Quantities - Calculation of Agronomic P Rate for Each Field - Calculation of Supplemental K Fertilizer to Meet Crop Nutrient Requirements - Additional Considerations for Land Application Program Planning
* References

Process Design for Forest Land Application Sites
* General
* Regulatory Requirements and Other Considerations
* Pathogens - Nitrogen Dynamics
* Effect of Sewage Sludge Applications on Tree Growth and Wood Properties
* Seedling Survival - Growth Response - Wood Quality
* Effect of Sewage Sludge Application on Forest Ecosystems
* Forest Application Opportunities
* Forest Stand Types - Christmas Tree Plantations
* Equipment for Sewage Sludge Application at Forest Sites
* Transfer Equipment - Application Equipment
* Scheduling
* Determining Sewage Sludge Application Rates for Forest Sites
* General - Nitrogen Uptake and Dynamics in Forests - Calculation Based on Nitrogen for a Given Year - Calculation of Sewage Sludge Application Rates for First and Subsequent Years - Calculation Based on Part 503 Pollutant Limits for Metals
* Design Example of Sewage Sludge Application at Forest Sites
* Sewage Sludge Quantity and Quality Assumptions - Site Selection - Determining the Sewage Sludge Application Rate Based on Nitrogen - Site Capacity Based on Nitrogen
* References

Process Design for Land Application at Reclamation Sites
* General
* Consideration of Post-Sewage Sludge Application Land Use
* Mining Regulations
* Nutrients, Soil pH, and Climate Considerations
* Nutrients - Soil pH and pH Adjustment - Factors Affecting Crop Yields at Reclamation Sites - Special Considerations for Arid Lands
* Vegetation Selection
* General - Seeding and Mulching
* Sewage Sludge Applications Methods
* Transportation - Site Preparation Prior to Sewage Sludge Application - Methods of Application - Storage
* Scheduling
* Determining Sewage Sludge Application Rates at Reclamation Sites
* General Information - Approach for Determining a Single, Large Application of Sewage Sludge at a Reclamation Site - Design Example for a Single, Large Sewage Sludge Application at a Reclamation Site
* References

Land Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens
* General
* Part 503 Requirements
* Marketing of Sewage Sludge
* Developing Product Demand - Marketing Cost Considerations
* References

Land Application of Domestic Septage
* General
* Definition of Domestic Septage - Domestic Septage versus Industrial/Commercial Septage
* Regulatory Requirements for Land Application of Domestic Septage
* Determining Annual Application Rates for Domestic Septage at Agricultural Land, Forests, or Reclamation Sites - Pathogen Reduction Requirements - Vector Attraction Reduction Requirements - Certification Requirements for Pathogen and Vector Attraction Reduction - Restrictions on Crop Harvesting, Animal Grazing, and Site Access - Recordkeeping and Reporting - Part 503 Required Management Practices - State Requirements for Domestic Septage
* Adjusting the pH of Domestic Septage
* Sampling for pH
* Methods of Application
* Operation and Maintenance at Land Application Sites Using Domestic Septage
* References

Public Participation
* Introduction
* Objectives
* Implementation of a Public Participation Program
* Initial Planning Stage - Site Selection Stage - Site Design Stage - Site Preparation and Operation Stage
* Special Considerations
* Agricultural Sites - Forest Sites - Reclamation Sites
* References

Monitoring and Sampling
* Overview
* Sewage Sludge Monitoring and Sampling
* Sampling Location - Frequency of Monitoring - Sample Collection - Analytical Methods
* Soil Monitoring and Sampling
* Sampling Location and Frequency - Number of Samples - Sample Collection - Analytical Methods
* Surface-Water and Ground-Water Monitoring
* Surface-Water Monitoring
* Ground-Water Monitoring
* Vegetation Monitoring
* Monitoring and Sampling at Reclamation Sites
* General - Disturbed Soil Sampling Procedures - Suggested Monitoring Program
* References

General Design Considerations
* Introduction
* Transportation of Sewage Sludge
* Transport Modes - Vehicle Transport - Pipeline Transport - Other Transport Methods
* Storage of Sewage Sludge
* Storage Requirements - Storage Capacity - Location of Storage - Storage Design
* Land Application Methods
* Overview - Application of Liquid Sewage Sludge - Application of Dewatered Sewage Sludge
* Site Preparation
* General - Protection of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality - Grading - Erosion Control
* Design of Supporting Facilities
* Access Roads - Public Access - Equipment and Personnel Buildings - Lighting and Other Utilities
* References

Management, Operational Considerations, and Record keeping and Reporting
* Sewage Sludge Management Plans
* Part 503 Requirements Affecting Land Application Site Operation
* Nuisance Issues
* Odor - Spillage - Mud - Dust - Noise - Road Maintenance - Selection of Haul Routes
* Safety Concerns
* Training
* Health Concerns
* General - Personnel Health Safeguards
* Recordkeeping and Reporting
* General - Part 503 Recordkeeping Requirements for Preparers of Sewage Sludge - Part 503 Requirements for Appliers of Sewage Sludge - Notification Requirements for Preparers and Appliers of Sewage Sludge - Notice of Interstate Transport - Notification by Appliers - Annual Reports
* References

Cost Estimate Guidance for Land Application Systems
* Introduction
* Information Needed Prior to Using Cost Algorithms - Economic Variables - Total Base Capital Cost Estimates - Total Annual O&M Cost Estimates - Calculating Cost Per Dry Ton
* Agricultural Land Application
* General Information and Assumptions Made - Process Design and Cost Calculations
* Application to Forest Lands
* General Information and Assumptions Made - Process Design and Cost Calculations
* Land Application at Reclamation Sites
* General Information and Assumptions Made - Process Design and Cost Calculations
* Transportation of Sewage Sludge
* Truck Hauling of Liquid Sewage Sludge - Truck Hauling of Dewatered Sewage Sludge - Long-Distance Pipeline Transport of Liquid Sewage Sludge
* Example of Preliminary Cost Estimation for Agricultural Land Application to Cropland
* Process Design and Cost Calculations
* References
* Appendix A Case Studies
* Appendix B Federal Sewage Sludge Contacts
* Appendix C Permit Application Requirements
* Appendix D Conversion Factors


Note: This report was originally published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It is being reprinted by Technomic Publishing Company, Inc. to make its timely more widely available.
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