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This guide to routinely performed laboratory procedures is essential for any veterinary practitioner or nurse learning to, or actually performing routine urinalysis and hematology laboratory procedures. It includes the basic information of how to collect, preserve, prepare, and examine specimens. It deals specifically with common findings in urinalysis and hematology and provides a comprehensive set of high quality images for on-the-spot reference. The book includes step-by-step procedures for both manual and automated testing of all blood components and detailed guidelines for microscopic analysis of urine sediment including crystals and casts.
Table of Contents
Section 1 Specimen Collection and Dipstick Analysis Introduction 3 Some Helpful Hints 3 Specimen Procurement 4 Collection Methods 4 Specimen Containers 4 Specimen Processing 5 Definition of Urinalysis 5 Physical Properties 5 Chemical Properties 7 Sediment Analysis 8 Procedure for Performing Chemical Analysis Using Dry Reagent Strip Method 8 Storage of Dry Reagent Strips 9 Dry Chemistry Methodologies 10 Protein Test 10 Ketones Test 11 Glucose Test 12 pH Test 13 Bilirubin Test 14 Blood Test 15 Urobilinogen Test 16 Nitrite Test 17 Specific Gravity Test 17 Leukocytes Test 18
Section 2 Microscopic Analysis Centrifugation of Urine Specimen 20 Procedure for Centrifugation and Performing Microscopic Analysis of a Urine Sample 20 Elements of Urine Sediment 21 White Blood Cells 22 Red Blood Cells 23 Fat Droplets 24 Epithelial Cells 24 Casts 27 Crystals 31 Other Elements Found in Urine Sediment 38 Mucus Threads 38 Spermatozoa 39 Bacteria 39 Fungal Hyphae 40 Parasites 41 Artifacts 42 Urinalysis Reference Ranges 44 Physical Properties 44 Dry Chemical Analysis 44 Microscopic Analysis 44
Section 4 White Blood Cells Function and Physical Characteristics 64 Neutrophils 64 Lymphocytes 65 Monocytes 66 Eosinophils 67 Basophils 69 Band Neutrophils 70 White Blood Cell Descriptive Terms 71 Neutrophil Maturation Sequence 74
Section 5 Red Blood Cells Function and Physical Characteristics 78 Laboratory Analysis 79 Red Blood Cell Indices 80 Red Blood Cell Terminology 82 Red Blood Cell Inclusions 90 Blood Parasites 93 Cellular Organization of the Peripheral Blood Smear 93 Red Blood Cell Production 94 Reticulocytes 96 Laboratory Findings 96 Microscopic Identification 96 Reticulocyte Count-Manual Method 98 Means of Enumeration 98 Blood Smear Evaluation Guidelines 99
Section 6 Platelets Platelet Structure and Function 102 Laboratory Analysis 103 Specimen Collection 103 Platelet Count Methods 104 Appendix: Manufacturers List 107 Index 109
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